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Drugs

Heroin Addiction



Description:

drug abuse help

Heroin
Diacetylmorphine (C21H23NO5) is
the chemical name for street heroin. A narcotic derivative of the opium
poppy plant, heroin falls into the class of drugs known as
“opiates.” Opiates are derived from the dried “milk” of the
opium poppy, which contains morphine and codeine, both of which are
effective painkillers and are used in many prescription medicines (Opioids,
on the other hand, are synthetically derived opiate-like drugs). On the
street heroin is known as “Smack”, “Junk”, “Skag”,
“Shit”, “H”, “Brown”, “Horse”,
“Dope” and “Boy”.

Pure heroin is a white powder with a bitter taste. Most heroin is
distributed in powder form and may vary in color from white to dark
brown due to the impurities left from the manufacturing process or the
presence of additives and diluting agents. There is also a less-refined
form of heroin known as “Black Tar” made predominantly in
Mexico, which is a gooey black or brownish substance. Heroin is illegal
in the U.S. for any use.
Source: http://area51.upsu.plym.ac.uk/infoserv/drugs/graphical/grphopia.html

Background:
Although Sumerian texts from 6,000 years ago refer to the
opium poppy as the “joy” plant, heroin itself was not
developed until 1874 and was originally marketed as a safe,
non-addictive substitute for morphine. However, it too was soon found to
produce a severe dependency very quickly. Heroin and opiates were made
illegal in 1915 with the Harrison Narcotic Act, which controlled the
sale of opium and opium derivatives, and cocaine.
Source: http://area51.upsu.plym.ac.uk/infoserv/drugs/graphical/grphopia.html

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Usage:
Heroin is used in a number of ways: Injected into a vein
(“mainlining”), injected into a muscle, smoked in a water pipe
or standard pipe, mixed in a marijuana joint or regular cigarette,
inhaled as smoke through a straw ( known as “chasing the
dragon”), snorted as powder via the nose.

On the street, powdered heroin is usually sold in glassine bags
weighing about 100mg or 1/10th of one gram. Black tar heroin
is sold by the gram weight. The purity of street heroin has skyrocketed
in the last twenty years. In 1980 the average bag of street heroin was
4% pure; the average street bag today is 34% pure and can be as pure as
66%.
Source: NIDA

Effects:
Heroin is, generally speaking, a sedative, and induces a
euphoric, drowsy, warm and content feeling. They also relieve stress and
discomfort by creating a relaxed detachment from pain, desires and
activity. As well as killing pain, moderate doses of pure opiates
produce a range of mild effects. They depress the activity of the
nervous system, including such reflexes as coughing, breathing and heart
rate. They also cause widening of the blood vessels, which gives a
feeling of warmth and reduces bowel activity, causing constipation.

With doses high enough to produce euphoria, there is still little
change in coordination. At higher doses though, sedation can be extreme
and an overdose can result in unconsciousness, coma and often death from
respiratory failure. The chance of an overdose is greatly increased if
other depressant drugs such as alcohol or tranquilizers are being used
at the same time.
Source: http://area51.upsu.plym.ac.uk/infoserv/drugs/graphical/grphopia.html
Dependency:
Heroin is a highly addictive substance and can produce
dependence within only a few days of regular use. Because mild
withdrawal symptoms are similar to the flu, users often don’t realize
their “sickness” is actually withdrawal.

Physical Dependence: extreme
Psychological Dependence: extreme
Tolerance: extreme

Once addicted, the acute physical withdrawal is grueling and peaks
between 48 and 72 hours after the last dose. The intense part of
withdrawal lasts for 3-5 days, while protracted effects can last for
months. During this time, symptoms include vomiting, nausea, diarrhea,
cramping, muscle and bone pain, cold flashes with goose bumps, kicking
movements, and severe shaking. It can take months or even years to
recover from the addiction, and fighting the psychological addiction is
often a lifetime battle. During this extended withdrawal, recovering
addicts battle cravings and depression.
Source: NIDA

Treatment:
As noted above heroin is a highly addictive substance, both
physically and psychologically. Additionally, because of the nature of
addiction, the newly recovering user is often in a somewhat depleted
physical state. Because of this, the first step to treatment is usually
a physical detoxification done in a hospital or medically supervised
setting. After detoxification, residential treatment or twelve-step
programs, such as the ones listed below are generally recommended.


treatment helpline

More Information:

GHB Addiction Treatment



Description:

drug abuse help

GHB
Gamma-hydroxy-butyrate or GHB, as it is known on the street,
is a clear liquid (it is also available in powder form, but rarely
seen). The substance itself is colorless, odorless and nearly tasteless.
While GHB is found naturally in the brain and other tissues in very
small quantities, synthetic GHB is manufactured from its precursor,
gamma-butyrolactone (also known as GBL), which is a solvent, found in
floor cleaning products, nail polish and super glue removers.

Background:
Developed in 1961 by renowned French researcher Dr. Henri Laborit, GHB was originally
developed as an anesthetic, but was soon withdrawn due to unwanted side
effects. In the United States GHB was readily available in the 1980’s in
health food stores. It gained popularity through its use by body
builders who thought the drug would increase their body mass and was
used much like steroids are used. In 1990 the Federal Drug
Administration labeled GHB a “dangerous drug,” but did not
make it a controlled substance, subject to regulation under the federal
Controlled Substance Act.

In the mid to late 1990s GHB acquired a reputation as a
date-rape drug and is now in the process of being added to the DEA’s
list of Schedule I drugs. Most states though, have
restrictions on its use and sale. The FDA has revoked its federal
approval and has declared it available in the United States only as an
investigational new drug for specified purposes (usually scientific
study). GBL, though, is still available over-the-counter.
Sources:
http://www.ghb.org/billpend.html
http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/ghb/ghb_law.shtml

Usage:
Dosages range from one gram or less, which is considered a mild dose to
upwards of five grams in a single dose. GHB is often sold on the street
in small bottles, approximately the size of a hotel shampoo bottle.
These bottles usually contain about ten doses and a dose is measured as
one capful. The powdered form of GHB can also be sniffed.
Source: http://emedicine.com/emerg/topic848.htm

Effects:
GHB depresses the respiratory system and reduces the amount
of oxygen the brain receives, resulting, with large doses, in
unconsciousness and loss of memory. At small doses, GHB encourages a
reduction of social inhibitions, similar to alcohol, and an increased
libido. At higher doses, this euphoria gives way to feelings of
sedation. Reported symptoms include vomiting, drowsiness, dizziness,
vertigo, and seizures. After excessive use, some users have experienced
loss of consciousness, irregular and depressed respiration, tremors or
coma. A number of deaths have occurred from GHB overdoses.
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1990 November 30

Dependency:
Physical Dependence: Reported but unconfirmed
Psychological Dependence: Moderate
Tolerance: Moderate
Source: http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/ghb/ghb_addiction.shtml

Treatment:
To the degree that it has been researched, GHB has been
determined to be moderately habit-forming. It should be noted, though,
that virtually any substance can be addictive, to a greater or lesser
degree, depending on the user. It is a generally accepted notion among
treatment professionals that the overall addiction, whether physical or
psychological, is the problem, not the specific substance. Below are
some treatment programs that may be useful for GHB users as well as
others:


treatment helpline

More Information on GHB:

Fentanyl Addiction Treatment



Description:

drug abuse help

The Duragesic (fentanyl transdermal system) patch is a powerful opioid pain medication for moderate to severe chronic pain. Manufactured by Janssen Pharmaceutica Products, L.P., the chemical name of fentanyl is N-Phenyl-N-(1-2-phenylethyl-4-piperidyl) propanamide. The active component of the system is fentanyl. Less than 0.2 mL of alcohol is also released from the system during use. The molecular weight of fentanyl base is 336.5, and the chemical structural formula is C 22 H 28 N 2 O.

Duragesic is a DEA Schedule II narcotic and prescriptions require a DEA Order Form.

Street names for fentanyl include apache, china girl, china white, dance fever, friend, goodfella, jackpot, murder 8, TNT, and Tango and Cash.

Sources:
http://www.ctclconsult.com/pdrdruginfo/html/40230088.htm
NIDA

Background:
With an analgesic potency of about 80 times that of morphine, fentanyl was introduced in the pharmacological world when it was first synthesized in Belgium in the late 1950s. A few years later, it was introduced into medical practice as an intravenous anesthetic under the trade name of Sublimaze. Thereafter, a number of ultra-short acting analgesics and potent analgesics were introduced. Today, fentanyls are widely used for anesthesia and analgesia. Duragesic is a fentanyl transdermal patch used in chronic pain management, and Actiq is a solid formulation of fentanyl citrate on a stick (like a lollipop) that dissolves slowly in the mouth for transmucosal absorption. Actiq is intended for opiate-tolerant individuals and is effective in treating breakthrough pain in cancer patients.

The illicit use of pharmaceutical fentanyls first appeared in the mid-1970s and remains a problem today. Illicit fentanyls are most commonly used by intravenous administration, but like heroin, they may also be smoked or snorted.

To date, over 12 different analogues of fentanyl have been produced secretly and identified in U.S. drug traffic. The biological effects of the fentanyls are comparable to those of heroin, with the exception that the fentanyls may be hundreds of times more potent.
Sources:
http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/concern/fentanyl.html
http://www.duragesic.com

Indications:
Duragesic is a powerful narcotic painkiller for serious pain. It is generally only prescribed for long-lasting relief from intense, persistent and chronic pain. The Duragesic patch should only be used when less potent medicines have proved ineffective and pain needs to be controlled 24/7.

Source:
http://www.ctclconsult.com/pdrdruginfo/html/40230088.htm

Usage:
Duragesic patches are a transdermal system providing 72 hours of continuous systemic delivery of this potent opioid analgesic.

Duragesic is available in 4 color-coded patch strengths: 25 mg, 50 mg, 75 mg, and 100 mcg/hour. As with all pure opioid agonists, there is no analgesic ceiling effect with fentanyl, thus there are no dose-limiting adverse effects, and dosages can be gradually increased until adequate pain relief is achieved.

Duragesic should never be used in the following situations:

*where the right dosage hasn’t been established in advance – for instance, after an operation or an accident.

*for mild or intermittent pain that responds to other medications.

*in children under 12 or teenagers who weigh less than 110 pounds.

Never increase the amount or frequency without your doctor’s approval, or take this drug for any reason other than the one prescribed.
Sources:
http://www.duragesic.com
http://www.rxlist.com

Effects:
Fentanyl’s primary effect is on the central nervous system; its primary therapeutic effects are analgesia and sedation. Other effects of fentanyl may include mood changes, euphoria, dysphoria, or drowsiness. Fentanyl depresses the respiratory centers and the cough reflex and constricts the pupils. Nausea, vomiting, and postural syncope may also occur although more commonly in ambulatory patients.
Source:
http://www.duragesic.com

Side Effects:
Typical side effects of Duragesic therapy include abdominal pain, anxiety, confusion, constipation, depression, diarrhea, dizziness, dry mouth, euphoria, hallucinations, headache, impaired or interrupted breathing, indigestion, itching, anorexia, nausea, agitation, shortness of breath, sleepiness, sweating, urinary retention, vomiting, and weakness.

Source:
http://www.pdrhealth.com

Cautionary Notes:
The following contraindications can cause serious or life-threatening hypoventilation if Duragesic is used:

· For acute or post-operative pain

· For mild or intermittent pain responsive to PRN (take as needed) or non–opioid therapy

· In doses exceeding 25 µg/hour at the initiation of opioid therapy

General Caution:

*To ensure controlled drug delivery, do not cut or damage the Duragesic patch.

*Heat can increase the release of fentanyl from the Duragesic patch, increasing breathing difficulties and other side effects. Do not expose the patch to heating pads, electric blankets, heated water beds, heat lamps, saunas, hot tubs, or other external sources of heat. Alert your doctor if you develop a high fever (104 degrees Fahrenheit or more).

*Duragesic can impair your reactions. Do not drive or operate dangerous machinery until you know how this drug affects you.

*Duragesic’s tendency to reduce respiration can be especially dangerous if your breathing is impaired by chronic pulmonary disease.

*Duragesic is not recommended for people with head injuries and other conditions that increase pressure on the brain.

*If you have an irregular heartbeat, Duragesic can make the problem worse.

*Use Duragesic with caution if you have kidney or liver disease.

*This medicine should be used with caution by patients with a known allergy to morphine, codeine, or acetaminophen products.

It is very important to check with your physician before combining Duragesic with the following:

*Antifungal medications such as Diflucan, Nizoral, and Sporanox

*HIV drugs classified as protease inhibitors, including Agenerase, Crixivan, Fortovase, Invirase, Kaletra, Norvir, and Viracept

*Macrolide antibiotics such as erythromycin, Biaxin, and Zithromax

Drugs that may decrease the effects of Duragesic:

*Carbamazepine (Tegretol)

*Phenytoin (Dilantin)

*Rifampin (Rifadin)

Fentanyl is a central nervous system depressant and intensifies the effects of alcohol. Do not drink alcohol while taking this medication.

When wearing a Duragesic patch, check with your doctor before taking any other central nervous system (CNS) depressant drugs. The combined effect can lead to difficulty breathing, hypotension, and possibly coma.

Drugs in this category include the following:

*Antipsychotic drugs such as Compazine, Mellaril, Stelazine, and Thorazine

*Muscle relaxants such as Flexeril, Robaxin, and Skelaxin

*Narcotic painkillers such as Demerol, Percodan, OxyContin, and Vicodin

*Sleep aids such as Ambien, Halcion, and Sonata

*Sleep-inducing antihistamines such as Benadryl and Phenergan

*Tranquilizers such as Ativan, Librium, Valium, and Xanax

*Alcoholic beverages

Overdosage:

Users are susceptible to an overdose if they take too much transdermal fentanyl, or combine it with excessive amounts of another narcotic. An overdose can cause severe breathing problems (breathing may even stop), unconsciousness, and death. Serious signs of an overdose include very slow breathing and drowsiness so severe the person is unresponsive. Other signs of an overdose include cold, clammy skin; low blood pressure; pinpoint pupils of eyes; and slow heartbeat. If this occurs, get emergency help right away.
Source:
http://www.mayoclinic.com

Dependency:
As a Schedule II controlled substance, fentanyl can produce drug dependence similar to that produced by morphine. Fentanyl has the potential for abuse, often leading to physical and psychological dependence, but may be a necessary evil to control chronic pain. Your doctor will have to take these factors into account before prescribing this drug.

Tolerance is when ever increasing doses are required to produce the same degree of analgesia. Tolerance is initially manifested by a decreased duration of analgesic effect, followed by decreases in the intensity of analgesia. Tolerance develops over days, weeks, or months. The rate of tolerance varies among patients.

According to the FDA, addiction is characterized by compulsive use, use for non-medical purposes, and continued use despite harm or risk of harm.

When patients no longer require Duragesic, they must work with their physician to set a gradual taper schedule to avoid acute withdrawal.
Source:
http://www.ctclconsult.com/pdrdruginfo/html/40230088.htm

Withdrawal:
After the patch is removed, it takes 17 hours or more for a 50 percent decrease in serum fentanyl concentrations. If you are planning to discontinue use of Duragesic, a gradual dosage decrease is recommended since it is not known what dose level the drug may be discontinued without producing the signs and symptoms of abrupt withdrawal.

Do not stop taking Duragesic without first checking with your doctor. Regular use will produce physical dependency in a few weeks which can lead to severe withdrawal if use is suddenly stopped. This can generally be avoided by reducing the dose gradually over a period of time before stopping treatment completely.

If during withdrawal, you experience any of the following symptoms, contact your physician:

Anxiety, body aches, diarrhea; rapid heartbeat, fever, runny nose or sneezing, chills, sweating, yawning, anorexia, nausea or vomiting,; nervousness, irritability, shivering or trembling, stomach cramps, insomnia, and weakness.

After you stop using this medicine, your body may need time to adjust. The length of time this takes depends on the amount of medicine you were using and how long you used it.

Of Note:

Duragesic may cause physical dependence. Physical dependence results in withdrawal symptoms in patients who abruptly discontinue the drug. Withdrawal also may be precipitated by the administration of drugs with opioid antagonist activity, such as naloxone, nalmefene, or mixed agonist/antagonist analgesics (pentazocine, butorphanol, buprenorphine, nalbuphine).

Sources:
http://www.rxlist.com
http://www.ctclconsult.com/pdrdruginfo/html/40230088.htm

Treatment:
Due to the fact that Duragesic is only prescribed for long-term, severe pain problems, patients must taper down slowly under a knowledgeable physician’s care, or, enter a detox center for 24/7 treatment. With a moderate to severe addiction from relatively long term use, an in patient detox in a hospital or medical supervised setting is highly recommended for its multi- disciplinary approach. Dependence resulting from even a few weeks of regular use can usually be handled under a physician’s supervision with minimal discomfort. Treatment will ultimately depend on the degree of addiction.

However a person chooses to free themselves from the clutches of a drug, there is one constant everyone needs and that is support. Narcotics Anonymous remains a successful choice for many addicts, with world-wide availability. The “information age” has produced numerous on line support forums, popular with many recovering addicts, useful to some addicts as their sole means of support and for others, as adjunct therapy. Drug addiction is treatable, with help out there for everyone.

Treatment Information:


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Self Help:

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Ephedra Addiction and Treatment



Description:

drug abuse help

In February of 2004, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a final rule prohibiting the sale of dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids (ephedra). Also known as Ma huang, the FDA has determined such supplements pose an unreasonable risk of illness or injury to consumers and the rule is effective 60 days from the date of publication.

The FDA’s final puts manufacturers on notice that dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury. Consequently, this ruling affects all currently marketed dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. The extent of the rule does not pertain to traditional Chinese herbal remedies. Affected are all dietary supplements that contain a source of ephedrine alkaloids, such as ephedra, Ma huang, Sida cordifolia and pinellia.

Ephedra, or ephedrine sulfate, is a naturally occurring substance derived from plants. Its principal active ingredient is ephedrine, which when chemically synthesized is regulated as a drug under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. In recent years ephedra products have been widely promoted to boost weight loss, sports performance, and energy. In addition, ephedra is enormously popular with dieters because it suppresses appetite and boosts energy. It is known under many names including Desert or Mormon tea.

Ephedra’s active medicinal ingredients are the alkaloids ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. Both ephedrine and its synthetic counterparts stimulate the (CNS) central nervous system, dilate the bronchial tubes, increase blood pressure, and heart rate. Pseudoephedrine (the synthetic form) is a popular over-the-counter remedy for nasal congestion.

Sources:
http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/NEWS/2004/NEW01021.html
http://www.fda.gov/oc/initiatives/ephedra/february2004/qa_020604.html
http://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/nmdrugprofiles/herbaldrugs/101040.shtml

Background:
Ephedra is listed as one of the original 365 herbs from the classical first century A.D. text on Chinese herbalism by Shen Nong. The Chinese have used ephedra medicinally for over 5,000 years. While the active constituent, ephedrine, was first isolated in 1887, it was not until 1924 that the herb became popular with physicians in the U.S. for its broncho-dilating and decongesting properties.

Popular in China, ephedra is known as Tsaopen-Ma Huang. Its active ingredient, ephedrine, is the main component in the well-known asthma remedy Primatene. Ephedra grows mainly in Mongolia and the bordering area of China.

Source:
http://www.holistic-online.com/Herbal-Med/_Herbs/h53.htm

Indications:

Ephedra is used as a stimulant and for mild respiratory disorders, including asthma and bronchitis. In Asian medicine, it is used for fever, swelling, and bone pain. Ephedrine, the principle alkaloid, a popular ingredient in many “herbal” weight loss and body building formulas, decongestants, “legal high” alternatives, and ephedrine-based pep pills.
Sources:
http://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/nmdrugprofiles/herbaldrugs/101040.shtml
http://www.erowid.org/plants/ephedra/ephedra.shtml

Usage:
Ephedra is available in crushed herb form, tinctures, and as a liquid extract. Be sure to follow manufacturer directions as potencies vary.

General guidelines for adults are as follows:

Tea: Use 1 to 4 grams of crushed Ephedra; take 3 times daily.

Liquid extract: 1 to 3 milliliters (about one-quarter to one-half teaspoonful) 3 times daily.

Tincture (1:1): The usual single dose is 5 grams (1 teaspoonful).

Tincture (1:4): 6 to 8 milliliters (about 1 to 11/2 teaspoonfuls) 3 times daily.

Do not exceed the manufacturer’s recommended dosage because ephedra can be very harmful to your health.

Effects:
Ephedra’s value for respiratory problems derives from the calming effect it has on spasms in the bronchial walls. At the same time, ephedra stimulates the nervous system, and boosts the rate and strength of heart contractions. It also tends to discourage the growth of bacteria.

Side Effects:
Ephedra has many potential side effects including sleeplessness, restlessness, irritability, headache, nausea, vomiting, urinary disorders, and rapid heartbeat. Higher doses can stimulate a sharp rise in blood pressure and disrupt heart rhythm.
Chronic use can lead to tolerance and dependence, requiring ever larger doses to obtain earlier effects. Due to these dangers, ephedra should only be used for short periods of time.
Source:
http://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/nmdrugprofiles/herbaldrugs/101040.shtml

Cautionary Notes:
Combining ephedra with certain other drugs can increase, decrease, alter the effects, and induce potentially serious problems. Ephedra should not be combined with:

*heart drugs such as digitalis or digoxin (Lanoxin) because ephedra is more likely to disturb heart rhythm.

*the blood pressure medication guanethidine (Ismelin)as ephedra can seriously magnify the herb’s stimulative effects.

*drugs classified as MAO inhibitors, such as the antidepressants Nardil and Parnate and the Parkinson’s disease medication Eldepryl.

*ergot-based migraine drugs such as Ergomar and Wigraine with Ephedra can induce high blood pressure.

Special Notes:

Because of its effect on the heart, ephedra can be very dangerous when taken in excessive amounts.

Do not take ephedra if you have high blood pressure, glaucoma, weakened blood vessels in the brain, prostate cancer, an overactive adrenal gland, or a thyroid disorder. It’s generally wise to avoid ephedra if you have any condition that makes you anxious or restless.

Adverse CNS effects associated with ephedrine toxicity include anxiety, insomnia, restlessness, psychosis and seizures. The major cardiovascular toxicity includes hypertension and tachyarrhythmias. If you experience any of these symptoms, seek medical attention immediately. According to the New England Journal of Medicine, a number of deaths resulting from symptoms of ephedra toxicity have been reported.

Overdosage:

Ephedra’s toxic effects are primarily due to ephedrine, and to a lesser extent, pseudoephedrine. Both stimulate the adrenergic system and ephedrine toxicity may be noticeable with doses only 2 to 3 times the therapeutic range.

Doses of more than 100 grams (about 3 ounces) can be life-threatening. Symptoms of overdose include severe sweating, enlarged pupils, spasms, and increased body temperature. Death results from heart failure and suffocation.
If you suspect an overdose, seek emergency treatment immediately.

Sources:
http://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/nmdrugprofiles/herbaldrugs/101040.shtml
http://www.erowid.org/plants/ephedra/ephedra.shtml

Dependency:
According to a recent report on 20/20, many ephedra fans believe it is not a drug because the active ingredient comes from a plant. However, ephedra is a stimulant that increases the heart rate, blood pressure, and speeds up brain activity. There is little doubt ephedra is addictive or habit forming, particularly due to the ever increasing number of people taking it in high dosages, however unwittingly.

Extended use can lead to tolerance and dependence, requiring ever increasing doses to obtain an effect. Due to these dangers, you should only take ephedra for short periods of time.

Tolerance is a diminished response to a drug. It is the effect of cellular adaptive changes or enhanced drug metabolism that develops over days, weeks, or months from the extended use of a medication. Ephedra users are susceptible to tolerance.

If you have been a long term ephedra user, and/or taking larger quantities than recommended by the manufacturer, consult your physician to help you discontinue this medication in a careful and safe manner.
Source:
http://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/nmdrugprofiles/herbaldrugs/101040.shtml

Withdrawal:
If you are a long term ephedra user, do not stop taking it without first checking with your doctor. Suddenly stopping this medicine may cause dangerous withdrawal side effects; your doctor will gradually taper your dosage before stopping completely.

Treatment:
A moderate to severe addiction may necessitate an in patient detox in a hospital or medical supervised setting. Treatment will ultimately depend on the degree of addiction.

However a person chooses to free themselves from the clutches of a drug, there is one constant each needs: Support. Narcotics Anonymous remains a successful choice for many addicts, with world-wide availability. The “information age” has produced numerous on line support forums, popular with many recovering addicts, useful to some addicts as their sole means of support and for others, as adjunct therapy. Drug addiction is treatable, with help out there for everyone.

Treatment Information:


treatment helpline


Self Help:



Treatment Centers:

More Information:

Ecstasy Abuse Treatment



Description:

drug abuse help

Ecstasy Pill
MDMA or 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine (C11H15NO2)
is an amphetamine derivative. This synthetic chemical can be extracted
from an essential oil of the sassafrass tree. On the street, MDMA is
known as “Ecstasy”, “X”, “XTC”,
“E”, “M”, “truck driver”,
“beans” or “rolls”. It’s effects include euphoria,
an increase in emotional openness and a mild to moderate stimulant
effect.
Source: http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/mdma/mdma.shtml

Background:
Ecstasy was first patented in Germany in 1912 as a
potential appetite suppressant though it wasn’t until the 1970s that Dr.
Alexander Shulgin introduced ecstasy to those with an interest in
drug-assisted psychotherapy and medical and psychiatric journals began
to present articles on its psycho-activity. In the late 1970s and early
1980s MDMA was used as a psychotherapeutic tool and also started to
become available on the street. It gained wider popularity and at the
time it was banned by the D.E.A, in 1985, many truck drivers had begun
using it as a stimulant.
Source: Drug Experts Report a Boom in Ecstasy Use; WILLIAM K.
RASHBAUM; New York Times; 2-26-00

Usage:
Street doses of MDMA generally run from 50mg. to 150 mg. 100mg. or
1/10th of one gram is considered an average single dose.
Usually pressed into pills or loaded into placebo capsules, the primary
method of use is orally. A powder form of MDMA can also be sniffed but
this is less common. Much less frequent than sniffing is the injection
or smoking of the drug, though this does occur. There are a number of
analogs (chemically similar substances) of MDMA that are commonly sold
as ecstasy on the street. These include MDA and MDEA (known as
“Eve”). Additionally, ecstasy is notoriously unreliable in
content, much more so than most other street drugs. “Ecstasy”
pills have been known to contain caffeine, ephedrine, amphetamines, MDA,
MDEA, DXM, heroin, cocaine and often don’t contain any MDMA or any
psychoactive drug at all.
Source: www.ecstasy.org

Effects:
Mild to moderate doses of ecstasy produce a euphoric sense of
well-being and a feeling of connectedness with and empathy for other
people, an enhanced sense of pleasure and self-confidence and increased
energy. This “love effect” has become most closely associated
with ecstasy use. Its stimulant effect has made it a favorite on the
club and “rave” circuits. In overdoses or misuses though,
users can experience confusion, disorientation, anxiety, panic attacks,
depression, insomnia, perceptual disorders and hallucinations, paranoia
and psychosis.

Ecstasy has a physiological effect that is similar to amphetamine and
cocaine. As such, studies have concluded that even mild to moderate use
may cause changes in the way the brain produces and distributes neuro-transmitters
(the chemicals, like serotonin and dopamine, known to play a role in
regulating mood, memory, appetite, sleep, aggression, sexual activity
and sensitivity to pain.) leading to long-term depression and other
mental illness (depending on the definition of “mental
illness”).
Source: http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/mdma/mdma.shtml

Dependency:
Physical Dependence: Reported but unconfirmed
Psychological Dependence: Moderate
Tolerance: Moderate
Source: http://area51.upsu.plym.ac.uk/~harl/ecstasy.html

Treatment:
To the degree that it has been researched, which is only
superficially, MDMA has not been determined to be habit-forming. It
should be noted, though, that virtually any substance can be addictive,
to a greater or lesser degree, depending on the user. It is a generally
accepted notion among treatment professionals that the overall
addiction, whether physical or psychological, is the problem, not the
specific substance. Listed below are some treatment programs that may be
useful for MDMA users as well as others:


treatment helpline

More Information:

DXM Addiction, Abuse, and Treatment



Description:

drug abuse help

DXM Dextromethorphan hydrobromide(DXM HBr) is the water-soluble salt of
dextromethorphan (DXM) and hydrobromic acid and the most common form of
DXM.

DXM itself is a synthetically produced substance related to codeine,
but without the analgesic, sedating, or constipating effects of opiates.
It has replaced codeine as the most widely used over-the-counter cough
suppressant. It is sold under the brand names Benylin DM, Pertussin,
Vicks Formula 44 and Robitussin Pediatric among others. Used for this
purpose it is both extremely safe and very effective. DXM, though, is
one of the few over-the-counter medicines with any serious recreational
use/abuse potential. Used recreationally, often on the club circuit, it
is referred to as “Robo”, “X” or “rome”.

Background:
DXM has been in use in the USA for approximately 30 years. In the mid
1980s, though, several deaths following ingestion of large doses of
dextromethorphan prompted the Swedish government to restrict this
compound to prescription-only status. It is, however, still widely
available over-the-counter in the United States. The pharmaceutical
potential of dextromethorphan does not appear to have been fully
explored yet. According to recent studies (performed predominantly on
animals), the substance also has shown promise in fighting both epilepsy
and Parkinson’s disease. Other studies though, have indicated possible
fetal abnormalities and brain damage in test cases. Remarkably, very
little is known definitively about DXM or its long-term effects.

Usage:
When used as intended for cough suppression, typical dosages
run about 10 to 20mg. every 4 hours or 30mg every 6 to 8 hours. When
used recreationally, dosages are generally much higher, in the range of
250 to 1500 mg. taken as a single dose.
Source: B. Brands, B. Sproule, and J.
Marshman (Eds), Drugs and Drug Abuse: A Reference Text, 1998, Ontario:
Addiction Research Foundation, pp. 571-2.

The method of use varies as the drug is available over-the-counter in
capsules, lozenges, tablets, oral suspension and cough syrup.
Source: Physicians Desk Reference

Effects:
Lower doses cause euphoria, stupor, excitability and changes
in muscle reflexes.

Large doses in the range of 250 to 1500 mg are known to cause
euphoric and hallucinatory effects. Proper dosages are, however, very
specific to the person taking the drug. There is a fine line between a
dose causing pleasant effects and one that may cause negative effects
ranging from mildly unpleasant– skin irritation, shortness of
breath, dizziness, temporary sexual dysfunction, nausea and hangovers–
to more serious ones like coma, brain damage, liver damage, respiratory
distress and death. Generally, the more serious side effects are a
result of combining DXM with alcohol and other drugs.

Dependency:
Physical Dependence: Unknown
Psychological Dependence: Moderate
Tolerance: Moderate

Treatment:
As has been noted, little is known about DXM with respect to
long-term use and addiction. DXM is thought to be a moderately
habit-forming substance with no physical addiction. It should be noted,
though, that virtually any substance can be addictive, to a greater or
lesser degree, depending on the user. It is a generally accepted notion
among treatment professionals that the addiction, whether physical or
psychological, is the problem, not the specific substance. Below are
some treatment programs that may be useful for DXM users as well as
others:


treatment helpline

More Information on Dextromethorphan:

Dilaudid Abuse Treatment



Description:

drug abuse help

Hydromorphone Hydrochloride (C17H19NO3 • MW 285.34)
is the brand name for Dilaudid, a narcotic analgesic manufactured by Abbott Laboratories Inc.

Dilaudid is in the analgesic, antiussive, anesthesia adjunct, opioid analgesic category and Schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act. Street names for Dilaudid include Little D and Dillies.

Each Dilaudid tablet includes the following inactive ingredients: lactose anhydrous, and magnesium stearate. Dilaudid tablets may contain traces of sodium bisulfite.
Sources:
http://www.drugs.com
http://www.lycaeum.org
http://www.ctclconsult.com

Background:
While morphine was first used medicinally as a painkiller, ironically, it was touted as a cure for opium addiction. It quickly replaced opium as a recreational drug and doctor recommended cure-all and became readily available from drugstores or through the mail. Morphine was used during the American Civil War as a surgical anesthetic and was sent home with many wounded soldiers for relief of pain. At the end of the war, over 400,000 people had the “army disease,” or, morphine addiction.

In 1906 the Pure Food and Drug Act enacted various labeling laws and importation restrictions and the Harrison Narcotics Act (1914) prohibited possession of narcotics unless prescribed by a physician. Despite legislation, morphine maintained much of its popularity until heroin came into use.
Source:
http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/m1/morphine.asp

Indications:
Dilaudid is a strong narcotic analgesic, commonly prescribed for the relief of moderate to severe pain. Dilaudid has two to eight times the painkilling effects of morphine.

Typically, this drug is used for conditions associated with severe pain. Such indications include burns, cancer, surgical pain, injury, heart attack, and other conditions.
Sources:
http://www.pdrhealth.com
http://www.erowid.org

Usage:
Dilaudid tablets are intended to be swallowed whole and are available in 1 mg, 2 mg, 3 mg, 4 mg, and 8 mg strengths for oral administration. 3 mg suppositories are also available. In the oral liquid formula, each mL contains 1 mg HCl hydromorphone and miscellaneous non-medicinal ingredients.

When abused, Dilaudid tablets are taken orally, crushed and then snorted, or dissolved in water and “cooked” for intravenous injection.
Never increase the amount or frequency without your doctor’s approval, or take this drug for any reason other than the one prescribed.
Sources:
http://www.pdrhealth.com
http://www.rxmed.com

Effects:
Hydromorphone’s effects are markedly similar to morphine, except the euphoria is closer to codeine. Nausea and vomiting is quite rare, and sedation is practically non-existent.

Hydromorphone’s abuse potential comes from the fact that its euphoric intravenous rush is very similar to heroin’s. Hydromorphone is one of the most prescribed opioids in the relief of pain for the terminally ill due to its minimal side effects and high potency.

Generally, when given intravenously, Dialudid’s analgesic action is apparent within 15 minutes and remains in effect for more than 5 hours. The onset of action of oral hydromorphone is somewhat slower, with measurable analgesia occurring within 30 minutes.
Sources:
http://www.rxmed.com
http://www.leda.lycaeum.org

Side Effects:
Typical side effects of Dilaudid usage include anorexia, anxiety, constipation, dizziness, drowsiness, fear, impairment of mental and physical performance, inability to urinate, mental clouding, mood changes, nausea, restlessness, sedation, somnolence, sluggishness, troubled and slowed breathing, and vomiting.
Sources:
http://www.pdrhealth.com
http://www.rxmed.com

Cautionary Notes:
Dilaudid is a narcotic with an addiction liability similar to that of morphine. For this reason, the same precautions should be taken in administering this drug as with morphine.

Rapid intravenous injection of Dilaudid increases the possibility of adverse effects, such as hypotension and respiratory depression. Extreme caution must be used.

As with any narcotic analgesic agent, the usual precautions should be observed and the possibility of respiratory depression should be kept in mind. If a patient shows signs of hypersensitivity to Dilaudid, the treatment should be stopped.

Possible Food and Drug Interactions when taking this Medication:

Dilaudid is a central nervous system depressant and therefore intensifies the effects of alcohol. Do not drink alcohol while taking this medication.

Check with your doctor before combining Dilaudid with the following:

* Antiemetics such as Compazine and Phenergan

* Antihistamines such as Benadryl

* General anesthetics

* Other central nervous system depressants such as Nembutal, Restoril

* Other narcotic analgesics such as Demerol and Percocet

* Phenothiazines such as Thorazine

* Sedative/hypnotics such as Valium and Halcion

* Tranquilizers such as Xanax

* Tricyclic antidepressants such as Elavil and Tofranil

Overdosage:

Serious overdose with hydromorphone presents with respiratory depression, extreme somnolence progressing to stupor or coma, skeletal muscle flaccidity, cold and clammy skin, and sometimes bradycardia (very slow heart rate) and hypotension. In severe cases, apnea, circulatory collapse, cardiac arrest and death may occur.
Sources:
http://www.pdrhealth.com
http://www.rxmed.com

Dependency:
Dilaudid has a moderately high dependency potential, with addiction or dependence occurring when used for longer than a few weeks, or at high doses. People who have been dependent on alcohol or other drugs in the past generally have a greater chance of becoming addicted to Dilaudid.

Psychic dependence, physical dependence, and tolerance may develop upon repeated administration of hydromorphone.

Tolerance is when ever increasing doses are required to produce the same degree of analgesia. Tolerance is initially manifested by a decreased duration of analgesic effect, followed by decreases in the intensity of analgesia. Tolerance develops over days, weeks, or months. The rate of tolerance varies among patients.

Psychic dependence is unlikely when hydromorphone is used for a short period of time.

Physical dependence is when continued use of the drug is needed to avoid withdrawal symptoms. This problem only becomes relevant after several (2 weeks to 2 months) of continued narcotic use. When taken as directed, Dilaudid can produce physical dependence in a few weeks time.

According to the FDA, addiction is characterized by compulsive use, use for non-medical purposes, and continued use despite harm or risk of harm.

Patients no longer requiring Dilaudid, should set a gradual taper schedule to avoid acute withdrawal.
Sources:
http://www.addictionwithdrawal.com/dilaudid.htm
http//:www.erowid.org

Withdrawal:
Withdrawal symptoms from Dilaudid can occur four to five hours after the last dose and continue for 7 to 10 days.

Dilaudid withdrawal symptoms can be severe and include: anxiety, insomnia, profuse sweating, muscle spasms, chills, shivering, restlessness, yawning, disturbed sleep, irritability, anxiety, weakness, twitching and spasms of muscles, restless legs, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, intestinal spasm, diarrhea, repetitive sneezing, hot and cold flashes, severe back, leg and abdominals pains and cramps. Frequently, an increase in body temperature, blood pressure, respiratory and heart rate may be present.

If you have used Dilaudid for more than a few weeks, do not stop taking it without first checking with your doctor. Suddenly stopping this medicine may cause severe withdrawal side effects. Your doctor will gradually taper your dosage before stopping completely.

The severity of withdrawal symptoms experienced is directly related to the amount of Dilaudid taken and the length of time over which it has been taken.
Source:
http://www.addictionwithdrawal.com/dilaudid.htm

Treatment:
To avoid severe withdrawal, regular Dilaudid users must taper down slowly under a knowledgeable physician’s care, or, enter a detox center for 24/7 treatment. With a moderate to severe addiction from relatively long term use, an in patient detox in a hospital or medical supervised setting is highly recommended for its multi- disciplinary approach. Dependence resulting from even a few weeks of regular use can usually be handled under a physician’s supervision with minimal discomfort. Treatment will ultimately depend on the degree of addiction.

However a person chooses to free themselves from the clutches of a drug, there is one constant each needs: Support. Narcotics Anonymous remains a successful choice for many addicts, with world-wide availability. The “information age” has produced numerous on line support forums, popular with many recovering addicts, useful to some addicts as their sole means of support and for others, as adjunct therapy. Drug addiction is treatable, with help out there for everyone.

Treatment Information:


treatment helpline


Self Help:

Treatment Centers:

More Information:

Dexedrine Addiction and Treatment



Description:

drug abuse help

Dexedrine is the brand name for dextroamphetamine sulfate, manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline. This medication is a respiratory and cerebral stimulant, and a Schedule II controlled substance with a high abuse liability.

Dexedrine (dextroamphetamine sulfate) is the dextro isomer of the compound d,1-amphetamine sulfate, a sympathomimetic amine of the amphetamine group. Chemically, dextroamphetamine is d-a-methylphenethylamine, and is present in all forms of Dexedrine as the neutral sulfate.

Other trade names for dextroamphetamine sulfate include Biphetamine, Adderal, and Dextrostat. Dexedrine street names are bennies, black beauties, crosses, hearts, LA turnaround, speed, truck drivers, and uppers.
Sources:
http://www.drugabuse.gov/DrugPages/DrugsofAbuse.html
http://www.rxlist.com

Background:
Dexedrine is an amphetamine, belonging to the group of medicines called central nervous system (CNS) stimulants. Dexedrine was initially developed in the 1920’s to treat depression and obesity. The use of Dexedrine to control hyperactivity in children has been known since its development but Dexedrine did not receive FDA approval for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) use until the 1950’s.

Dexedrine became very popular in the late 60s and early 70s as a prescription diet aid because of its ability to suppress appetite. Dexedrine was frequently (and illegally) used by college students, either for the stimulant high it provided or to keep them awake while studying.

Amphetamines were first synthesized in Germany in 1887 and for a long time after, appeared to be a drug in search of a disease. By the 1920’s, it was considered a cure or treatment for everything from depression to decongestion. A decade later, it was marketed both as Benzedrine in an over-the-counter inhaler to treat asthmatics, and for nasal congestion. Whether the subsequent amphetamine abuse was fueled by Prohibition or the Depression we will never know, but this cough medicine became widely used by people without asthma, breathing or congestion problems. By 1937, amphetamine tablets became available by prescription.
Sources:
http://www.drug-rehabs.org/faqs/FAQ-dexedrine.php
http://www.add-adhd-help-center.com/dexedrine_medication.htm
http://www.dexedrineaddiction.com/dexedrine-effects.htm

Indications/Usage:
Dexedrine, a stimulant drug available in tablet or sustained-release capsule (Spansules) form, is prescribed to help treat the following two conditions:

* Narcolepsy (uncontrollable desire for sleep or sudden attacks of deep sleep)

* Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Dexedrine should only be used in conjunction with a total program including social, psychological, and educational guidance.)

Dexedrine tablets and Spansules are intended to be swallowed whole. Do not chew or crush the sustained-release form, or Spansule.

Dexedrine tablets and Spansules come as either short-acting (usually 4 hours) or long-acting (6-12 hours). The shorter-acting medications effects take place in 20 minutes, while the longer-acting ones may take up to an hour before the effects begin to take place.

If you are taking the tablet form, you may need up to 3 doses a day while you can only take the sustained-release capsules only once a day. Other dangerous ingestion practices include swallowing, snorting, smoking or injecting the dissolved product.

Never increase the amount or frequency without your doctor’s approval, or take this drug for any reason other than the one prescribed.
Sources:
http://www.drugabuse.gov/DrugPages/DrugsofAbuse.html
http://www.rxlist.com

Effects:
Amphetamines are a respiratory and cerebral stimulant, causing intense mental and physical stimulation. Resulting intoxication effects include increased heart rate, blood pressure, metabolism; feelings of exhilaration, energy, and increased mental alertness. Because Dexedrine increases wakefulness, often keeping users awake and alert for many hours, various amphetamines have been used by the military, pilots, truck drivers, and other workers to keep functioning past their normal limits.

Dextroamphetamine (dexamphetamine, d-amphetamine) sulfate is a sympathomimetic agent with indirect effects on adrenergic receptors. It has alpha-and beta-adrenergic activity. It has actions qualitatively similar to those of amphetamine sulfate but is approximately twice as potent. It has a marked stimulant effect on the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the cerebral cortex and the respiratory and vasomotor centers.

Sources:
http://www.rxmed.com/b.main/b2.pharmaceutical/b2.prescribe.htm
http://www.drugabuse.gov/DrugPages/DrugsofAbuse.htm
http://www.erowid.org

Side Effects:
Side effects associated with Dexedrine use are: addiction, agitation/irritability, insomnia, dry mouth, headache, nausea, anorexia, weight loss, hallucinations, liver irritation/toxicity, heart palpitations, tics, Tourette’s syndrome, sexual difficulties, tremors, behavior disturbances, and thought disorder, elevation of blood pressure, hives, over stimulation, restlessness, dizziness, euphoria, headache, exacerbation of motor skills, diarrhea, and constipation.

If you experience any of the following symptoms contact your doctor immediately: loss of coordination; delirium, panic, paranoia, impulsive behavior, aggressiveness, tolerance, addiction, and psychosis.

If you habitually take Dexedrine in doses higher than recommended, or if you take it over a long period of time, you may eventually become dependent on the drug and suffer from withdrawal symptoms if you abruptly stop it.

Excessive Dexedrine use may lead to hyperactivity, irritability, personality changes, schizophrenia-like thoughts and behavior, severe insomnia, and severe skin disease.

The potential health consequences of excessive use include rapid or irregular heart beat; reduced appetite, weight loss, heart failure, nervousness, and insomnia.
Sources:
http://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/rxdrugprofiles/drugs/dex1129.shtml
http://www.drugabuse.gov/DrugPages/DrugsofAbuse.html

Cautionary Notes:
As a stimulant, this drug has high abuse potential. After the stimulant effect wears off, a period of depression and fatigue typically follows. If this letdown is treated with another dose, this soon becomes a vicious circle.

If Dexedrine is taken with certain foods or drugs, the effects of either could be increased, decreased, or altered. It is especially important to check with your doctor before combining Dexedrine with the following:

Ammonium chloride

Chlorpromazine (Thorazine)

Fruit juices

Glutamic acid hydrochloride

Guanethidine

Haloperidol (Haldol)

Lithium carbonate (Eskalith)

Methenamine (Urised)

Reserpine

Sodium acid phosphate

Vitamin C (as ascorbic acid)

Antihistamines such as Benadryl

Blood pressure medications such as Catapres, Hytrin, and Minipress

Ethosuximide (Zarontin)

Veratrum alkaloids (found in certain blood pressure drugs)

The following substances can either increase the effects of Dexedrine or increase the medication’s effect when taken with Dexedrine:

Acetazolamide (Diamox)

MAO inhibitors such as Nardil and Parnate

Propoxyphene (Darvon)

Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)

Thiazide diuretics such as Diuril

Antidepressants such as Norpramin

Meperidine (Demerol)

Norepinephrine (Levophed)

Phenobarbital

Phenytoin (Dilantin)

Do Not Take Dexedrine if:

* you are sensitive to or have ever had an allergic reaction to it.

* you have taken a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAO inhibitor) such as the antidepressants Nardil and Parnate within the last 14 days. Dexedrine and MAO inhibitors may interact to cause a potentially life-threatening rise in blood pressure.

Do not take Dexedrine if you suffer from any of the following conditions:

* Agitation

* Cardiovascular disease

* Glaucoma

* Hardening of the arteries

* High blood pressure

* Overactive thyroid gland

* Substance abuse

Special warnings about Dexedrine:

* Dexedrine should be used with caution if you have mild high blood pressure.
* Dexedrine may affect your ability to perform potentially hazardous activities, such as operating machinery or driving a car.

* Do not take dextroamphetamine in the evening because it may cause insomnia.
* Dexedrine should not be used to combat fatigue or to replace rest.

Sources:
http://www.pdrhealth.com
http://www.rxmed.com/b.main/b2.pharmaceutical/b2.prescribe.html
http://www.drug-rehabs.org/faqs/FAQ-dexedrine.php

Abuse/Intoxication:
Chronic amphetamine intoxication may present with severe dermatoses, marked insomnia, irritability, hyperactivity, and personality changes. The most severe manifestation of chronic intoxication is psychosis, often clinically indistinguishable from schizophrenia.

Sources:
http://www.rxmed.com/b.main/b2.pharmaceutical/b2.prescribe.html
http://www.addictionwithdrawal.com

Dependency:
The possibility of tolerance and psychological dependence, particularly with excessive use, should be considered. If psychological dependence occurs, the medication should be discontinued. Abrupt cessation following prolonged high dosage administration may result in extreme fatigue and mental depression. A slower, physician supervised taper off the drug is highly recommended.

Signs of amphetamine dependency are:

· A strong desire or need to continue taking the medicine.

· A need to increase the dose to maintain the effects of the medicine.

· Withdrawal syndrome occurring after the medicine is stopped.

Stimulant drugs such as Dexedrine can quickly induce “tolerance.” Tolerance is a diminished response to a drug that develops over days, weeks, or months. It is the effect of cellular adaptive changes or enhanced drug metabolism from extended use of a medication.

If you abuse Dexedrine, you will likely find that the dose that had worked is suddenly inadequate, necessitating a higher dose. If you increase the dose, you will soon become tolerant to the higher dose, leading to a vicious circle and addiction.

It is important that your physician help you discontinue this medication in a careful and safe manner to avoid severe withdrawal.

Sources:
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/uspdi/202031.htm
http//:www.erowid.org

Withdrawal:
The length and severity of Dexedrine withdrawal is related to how much and how often the drug was used. Generally speaking, you may experience withdrawal symptoms if you stop taking it suddenly after several weeks of continuous use. The most pronounced withdrawal symptoms from Dexedrine are depression and extreme fatigue.

Consult with your doctor about stopping this medication gradually.

Obviously, the severity of withdrawal symptoms experienced is directly related to the amount of Dexedrine taken and the length of time over which it has been taken.

Withdrawal symptoms can occur when the use of amphetamines is stopped abruptly. Users may experience fatigue, craving, exhaustion, confusion, psychotic reaction, anxiety reactions, long, disturbed periods of sleep, irritability, intense hunger, and moderate to severe depression.

Sources:
http://www.addictionwithdrawal.com/dexedrine.htm
http://www.erowid.org
http://www.mayoclinic.com
http://my.webmd.com/content/drugs

Treatment:
Long term Dexedrine users should taper off the medication slowly under a knowledgeable physician’s care, or, enter a detox center for 24/7 treatment. With a moderate to severe addiction from relatively long term use, an in patient detox in a hospital or medical supervised setting is highly recommended for its multi- disciplinary approach. Dependence resulting from even a few weeks of regular use can usually be handled under a physician’s supervision with minimal discomfort. Treatment will ultimately depend on the degree of addiction.

However a person chooses to free themselves from the clutches of a drug, there is one constant each needs: Support. Narcotics Anonymous remains a successful choice for many addicts, with world-wide availability. The “information age” has produced numerous on line support forums, popular with many recovering addicts, useful to some addicts as their sole means of support and for others, as adjunct therapy. Drug addiction is treatable, with help out there for everyone.

Treatment Information:


treatment helpline


Self Help:

Treatment Centers:

More Information:

Demerol Abuse Treatment



Description:

drug abuse help

Demerol (C 15 H 21 NO 2 • M.W. 321.8 ) is the trade name for meperidine hydrocholoride, manufactured by Sanofi-Synthelabo, Inc. This medication is an opiate agonist, and a Schedule II controlled substance with a high abuse liability. Meperidine is completely synthetic and can be produced with dichlorodiethyl methylamine and benzyl cyanide.

Meperidine hydrochloride consists of ethyl 1-methyl-4-phenylisonipecotate hydrochloride, a white crystalline substance. It is readily soluble in water and has a neutral reaction and slightly bitter taste. On the street, Demerol is referred to as Demmie(s).
Sources:
http://www.ctclconsult.com/pdrdruginfo/html/73000480.htm
http://www.erowid.org

Background:
Demerol was introduced as a potent analgesic in the 1930s and was originally found to be useful for muscle spasms. With the discovery of its analgesic properties, it has since been used almost exclusively for the relief of moderate to severe pain.

Demerol produces similar, though not identical effects to morphine. Most notably, meperidine has a shorter duration of action and reduced antitussive and antidiarrheal actions. Several analogues of meperidine have been secretly produced with one memorable analogue with a neurotoxic by-product that produced irreversible Parkinsonism.

Sources:
http://www.drugfreeworkplace.com/drugsofabuse/synthetic.htm
http://www.lycaeum.org

Indications:
The principal actions of therapeutic value in Demerol are analgesia and sedation. Demerol is a narcotic analgesic with effects similar to morphine. Currently, Demerol is used for the relief of moderate to severe pain, most commonly in obstetrics and post-operative conditions. A unique characteristic to Demerol over its opiate family members is its ability to interrupt postoperative shivering and shaking chills induced by amphotericin B.
Sources:
http://www.rxmed.com/b.main/b2.pharmaceutical/b2.prescribe.html
http://www.demeroladdiction.com/demerol.htm

Usage:
Demerol comes in both tablet and liquid form for oral administration. It is usually is taken every 3-4 hours as needed. The drug can also be administered by injection into a large muscle or added to an intravenous fluid. Unlike most other opiates, Demerol has a short duration of action of only 2 to 3 hours. The standard dosing schedule results in serum levels below the concentration required for pain relief for most of the dosing interval.

Demerol is typically found as a single product, with few combination products. One frequently found combination product is acetaminophen in Demerol APAP.

When abused, Demerol is taken orally, injected and snorted. Never increase the amount or frequency of your dose without your doctor’s approval, or take this drug for any reason other than the one prescribed.
Source:
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/medmaster/a601155.html

Effects:
Despite being structurally distinct from morphine and related opiates, Demerol’s effects on opiate receptors are similar to those of morphine. Demerol alters the perception of pain in the spinal cord and CNS but has no effect on afferent nerve endings. Although the exact physiologic action of opiates is not known, stimulation of opiate receptors ultimately reduces neurotransmitter release.

The effects of Demerol are felt 10-15 minutes after ingestion and typically last anywhere from 2-4 hours. Demerol’s effects are very similar to morphine, with sedation, respiratory depression and euphoria less intense than that of morphine. While nausea and vomiting are fairly common with oral use, it is less likely when administered via injection. Users of Demerol usually experience euphoria because the medication triggers the brain’s pleasure centers while it blocks pain.
Sources:
http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/opiates/opiates_faq_opioids.shtml
http://www.demeroladdiction.com/demerol.htm

Side Effects:
The most frequent adverse reactions associated with Demerol use are: lightheadedness, dizziness, sedation, nausea, vomiting, and sweating. Less common side effects include: euphoria, dysphoria, weakness, headache, agitation, tremor, uncoordinated muscle movements, severe convulsions, transient hallucinations, disorientation, visual disturbances, dry mouth, constipation, biliary tract spasm, flushing of the face, tachycardia, bradycardia, palpitation, hypotension, syncope, urinary retention, pruritus, urticaria, and other skin rashes.

If you habitually take Demerol in doses higher than recommended, or if you take it over a long period of time, you may eventually become dependent on the drug and suffer from withdrawal symptoms if you abruptly stop it.

Source:
http://www.rxmed.com/b.main/b2.pharmaceutical/b2.prescribe.html

Cautionary Notes:
The major hazard of Demerol is respiratory depression. To a lesser degree, other risks are circulatory depression; respiratory arrest, shock, and cardiac arrest.

Do not take Demerol without Telling your Doctor:

· if you have hypersensitivity to Demerol.
· if you have used monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors during the previous 14 days.

More serious reactions include hyperexcitability, convulsions, tachycardia, hyperpyrexia, and hypertension. Although it is not known if other narcotics are free of the risk of such side effects, most reported reactions have occurred with Demerol.

It is especially important to check with your doctor before combining Demerol with the following:

· Other narcotic analgesics

· General anesthetics

· Phenothiazines

· Tranquilizers

· Sedative-hypnotics (including barbiturates)

· Tricyclic antidepressants

· Other CNS depressants, including alcohol. Respiratory depression, hypotension, and profound sedation or coma may result.

Special warnings about Demerol:

* Demerol should be used with caution in patients with atrial flutter and other supraventricular tachycardias.

* Demerol may aggravate preexisting convulsion disorders. Convulsions may occur in individuals without such history if the dosage is escalated above recommended levels.

* Demerol should be administered with extreme caution in the elderly or debilitated, and those with severe impairment of hepatic or renal function, hypothyroidism, Addison’s disease, and prostatic hypertrophy or urethral stricture.

* Demerol may interfere with the diagnosis and treatment of abdominal conditions.

Demerol overdose presents with bluish colored skin; cold and clammy skin; coma or extreme sleepiness; limp, weak muscles; low blood pressure; slow heartbeat; troubled or slowed breathing. In the case of overdose, immediate medical attention is required.
Sources:
http://www.ctclconsult.com/pdrdruginfo/html/73000480.htm
http://www.rxmed.com/b.main/b2.pharmaceutical/b2.prescribe.html
http://ruralnet.marshall.edu/pain/demerol.htm

Dependency:
Demerol can produce drug dependence akin to morphine, giving it a high abuse potential. It should be prescribed and administered with the same degree of caution appropriate to the use of morphine.

The possibility of tolerance and psychological dependence, particularly with excessive use, should be considered. If psychological dependence occurs, the medication should be discontinued. Abrupt cessation following prolonged high dosage administration may result in extreme fatigue and mental depression. A slower, physician supervised taper off the drug is highly recommended.

Signs of Demerol dependency:

· A strong desire or need to continue taking the medicine.

· A need to increase the dose to maintain the effects of the medicine.

· Withdrawal syndrome occurring after the medicine is stopped.

Opiate agonist drugs such as Demerol can quickly induce “tolerance.” Tolerance is a diminished response to a drug that develops over days, weeks, or months. It is the effect of cellular adaptive changes or enhanced drug metabolism from extended use of a medication.

If you abuse Demerol, you will likely find that the dose that has worked for you is suddenly inadequate, necessitating an increase. However, if you increase the dose, you will soon become tolerant to the higher dose, leading to the vicious circle of addiction. This is why it is so important that your physician help you monitor or discontinue this medication in a careful and safe manner to avoid severe withdrawal symptoms.

Sources:
http://www.rxmed.com
http://www.drug-rehabs.org/faqs/FAQ-demerol.php

Withdrawal:
The length and severity of Demerol withdrawal is directly related to how much and how often the drug was used. Generally speaking, you may experience withdrawal symptoms if you stop taking it suddenly after several weeks of continuous use.
You should always consult with your physician before stopping this medication.

Obviously, the severity of withdrawal symptoms experienced is directly related to the amount of Demerol taken and the length of time over which it has been taken. Generally speaking, “cold turkey” quitting of this medication is not recommended. If you use Demerol regularly and wish to stop taking this medication, consult first with your physician.

“Cold turkey” withdrawal symptoms can occur four to five hours after the last dose and usually lasts 7 to 10 days. Demerol withdrawal symptoms include but are not limited to: severe anxiety, insomnia, profuse sweating, muscle spasms, chills, shivering and tremors.
Source:
http://www.addictionwithdrawal.com/demerol.htm

Treatment:
Long term Demerol users should taper off the medication slowly under a knowledgeable physician’s care, or, enter a detox center for 24/7 treatment. With a moderate to severe addiction from relatively long term use, an in patient detox in a hospital or medical supervised setting is highly recommended for its multi- disciplinary approach. Dependence resulting from even a few weeks of regular use can usually be handled under a physician’s supervision with minimal discomfort. Treatment will ultimately depend on the degree of addiction.

However a person chooses to free themselves from the clutches of a drug, there is one constant each needs: Support. Narcotics Anonymous remains a successful choice for many addicts, with world-wide availability. The “information age” has produced numerous on line support forums, popular with many recovering addicts, useful to some addicts as their sole means of support and for others, as adjunct therapy. Drug addiction is treatable, with help out there for everyone.

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Crack Addiction and Abuse



Description:

drug abuse help

Crack cocaineCrack
cocaine is simply another form of cocaine base. The substance is so
named for the crackling sound that occurs when it is heated. Also
derived from powder cocaine, manufacturing crack cocaine involves
dissolving the powdered form of the drug in a solution of sodium
bicarbonate and water. The solution is heated and a solid substance
separates from the boiling mixture. This solid substance, crack cocaine,
is removed and allowed to dry. The crack cocaine is then broken or cut
into “rocks,” each typically weighing from one-tenth to
one-half a gram. One gram of pure powder cocaine will yield
approximately 0.89 grams of crack cocaine. Crack cocaine purchased on
the street though is not necessarily pure because many times additives
or fillers are used in the manufacturing process.

Source: http://www.mninter.net/~publish/Photo20b.htm

Background:
Home “freebasing” (producing pure cocaine with an
ethyl ether-based distillation process) became popular in the 1970s.
However, after a number of highly publicized accidents—including one
in which comedian Richard Pryor set himself on fire with the ether and
nearly died—the danger of working with ether in an already intoxicated
state became well known. In the mid-1980s it became known that
sodium-bicarbonate or ammonia could be substituted for ether for the
same result with much less hazard. Around this time, drug gangs began to
market the new product vigorously.

Source: http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/cocaine/cocaine.shtml

Usage:
Cocaine base (including coca paste, freebase cocaine, and
crack cocaine) is usually smoked in pipes constructed of glass bowls
using fine mesh screens to hold the drug. The user heats the side of the
bowl (usually with a lighter), and the heat causes the cocaine base to
vaporize. Alternatively, crack cocaine can be sprinkled in marijuana or
tobacco cigarettes and smoked. 

Source: http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/concern/cocaine.htm

Effects:
Crack has the same effects as other types of cocaine but much
more intense. The effects, however, are also more short lived, and once
the drug leaves the brain, the user experiences a “coke crash”
that includes depression, irritability, and fatigue, a greatly increased
risk of abnormal heart rhythms, high blood pressure, stroke and death.

Long-term consequences include: the coughing of black phlegm,
wheezing, lung trauma and bleeding, hoarseness, parched lips, tongue and
throat from inhaling hot fumes, mental deterioration, psychosis,
suicidal thoughts, social withdrawal and violent behavior.

Source: http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/cocaine/cocaine.shtml

Dependency:
Physical Dependence: Moderate
Psychological Dependence: Severe
Tolerance: Strong

Crack is a highly addictive substance, at least in the psychological
sense. While the physical withdrawal is relatively short-term, the
psychological cravings associated with withdrawal can last for months.
Crack withdrawal symptoms include intense cravings for the drug, hunger,
irritability, apathy, severe depression, paranoia, suicidal thoughts,
loss of sex drive, insomnia or excessive sleep. Often, more crack is
used to reduce these unpleasant effects. More than one user of cocaine
has said that using the drug was more important than food, sex, friends,
family, or jobs. Their main concern was how to ease the undesirable
effects of being without the drug.
Source: http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/cocaine/cocaine_effects.shtml

Treatment:
As noted above crack is a highly addictive substance.
Additionally, because of the nature of addiction, the newly recovering
user is often in a somewhat depleted physical state. Because of this,
the first step to treatment is usually a detoxification done in a
hospital or medically supervised setting. After detoxification,
residential treatment or twelve-step programs, such as the ones listed
below are generally recommended.


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