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Oxycontin Abuse Treatment



Description:

drug abuse help

Oxycodone hydrochloride (C18 H21 NO4 – HCl MW 351.83) is the chemical
structural formula for OxyContin, manufactured by Purdue Pharma, L.P.
Tablets are an opioid analgesic, and a Schedule II controlled substance
with an abuse liability similar to morphine. OxyContin tablets are supplied
in 10mg, 20 mg, 40 mg, and 80 mg tablet strengths for oral administration.
The tablet strengths indicate the amount of oxycodone per tablet as
hydrochloride salt.

OxyContin is a trade name for the drug oxycodone hydrochloride, or
oxycodone HCL. Street names for Oxycodone include Oxy, O.C., Hillbilly
heroin, Oxycotton and Killer.

Oxycodone is a white, odorless crystalline powder derived from the
opium alkaloid, thebaine. Inactive ingredients include ammonio
methacrylate copolymer, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, lactose,
magnesium stearate, povidone, red iron oxide (20 mg strength tablet
only), stearyl alcohol, talc, titanium dioxide, triacetin, yellow
iron oxide (40 mg strength tablet only) , yellow iron oxide with
FD&C blue No. 2 (80 mg strength tablet only).

Background:
It is believed that ancient civilizations in Egypt and Greece used
opium for its euphoric effects. During the 19th century, laudanum
(opium dissolved in alcohol) and other opium products were used in
Great Britain and America to treat various ailments, from teething
soreness in babies to fever and cough in children and adults.

The milky liquid from the opium poppy plant seed pods is extracted
and dried to form opium powder. Various alkaloids from this powder
can be isolated to form opioids such as morphine, codeine and
oxycodone. The alkaloid in oxycodone is thebaine.

OxyContin was introduced in the United States in December of 1995,
and Canada in July 1996, although oxycodone products have been
illicitly abused for the past 30 years.
Sources:
http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/drugfact/oxycontin
http://www.howstuffworks.com

Indications:
OxyContin tablets are a controlled-release oral formulation of
oxycodone hydrochloride indicated for the management of chronic,
and moderate to severe pain when a continuous around-the-clock
analgesic is needed. When used properly, OxyContin can provide
pain relief for up to 12 hours. OxyContin is not intended as a
prn analgesic. (Not to be taken as needed.)
Sources:
FDA: Food and Drug Administration
DEA: Drug Enforcement Administration

Usage:
While OxyContin tablets are only to be administered by swallowing the
tablets whole, a number of other dangerous and potentially fatal
means of administration are often employed by those seeking to
increase the euphoria which can lead to a dangerous oxycontin addiction, by bypassing the time-release control mechanism.
According to many experts, this hazardous and abusive means of ingestion
creates a euphoric rush similar to heroin.

These potentially lethal ingestion practices include snorting,
crushing, chewing, or injecting the dissolved product. This results
in an uncontrolled delivery of the opioid and poses significant risks
to the abuser that could result in overdose and death.
Source: FDA: Food and Drug Administration

Effects:
Oxycodone works by stimulating certain opioid receptors located
throughout the central nervous system, in the brain and along the
spinal cord. When the oxycodone binds to the opioid receptors, a
variety of physiologic responses can occur, including pain relief,
relaxation, slowed breathing, and euphoria.

Typical side effects of opioid therapy include constipation,
somnolence, nausea, vomiting, pruritus, (itching) headache, dry mouth,
sweating and asthenia (weakness).

Less common but potentially hazardous effects include respiratory
depression, altered mental state and postural hypotension. Elderly
patients are particularly susceptible to respiratory depression,
particularly when oxycodone is used in conjunction with other CNS
depressant medications. Oxycodone can cause severe hypotension and
is risky for individuals whose ability to maintain blood pressure has
been compromised.

All effects are typical opioid side effects. Such effects are dose
dependent, related to a patient’s level of opioid tolerance, and
specific to an individual’s host factors.
Sources:
http://www.fda.gov
http://www.howstuffworks.com
http://www.rxlist.com

Cautionary Notes:
Oxycodone should only be used with extreme caution in the following
conditions: acute alcoholism; Addison’s Disease; CNS depression or
coma; delirium tremens; debiliated patients; kyphosocoliosis
associated with respiratory depression; myxedema or hypothyroidism;
prostatic hypertrophy or urethral stricture; severe impairment or
hepatic, pulmonary or renal function; and toxic psychosis.

Oxycodone usage may obscure the diagnosis or clinical course in
patients with acute abdominal conditions.

Oxycodone may aggravate convulsive disorders, and all opiods may
induce or aggravate seizures.

The use of oxycodone with alcohol, other opioids, or illicit drugs
will have an additive effect, causing central nervous system
depression.

Oxycodone addiction is much like other legal or illicit opioid agonists.
This medication has become widely sought by drug abusers and people
with a history of addiction.

Acute overdosage presents with respiratory depression, somnolence
leading to stupor or coma, skeletal muscle flaccidity, cold and
clammy skin, constricted pupils, bradycardia (unusually slow heart
action), hypotension and death. Oxycodone overdosage requires immediate medical attention.
Sources:
http://www.fda.gov
http://www.health.org/govpubs/ms726/

For patients no longer requiring oxycodone, cessation of therapy
should include a gradual taper schedule to avoid acute withdrawal in
the physically dependent patient.

Dependency:
When taken as directed, oxycodone will produce physical dependence in
a few weeks time. However, the real danger is for users who take the
drug for a euphoric rush, or by ingesting by ANY other means than
swallowing the tablet whole.

According to the FDA, addiction is characterized by compulsive use,
use for non-medical purposes, and continued use despite harm or risk
of harm.

Sudden cessation of OxyContin after even a few weeks can cause a
severe withdrawal syndrome.

OxyContin addiction is commensurate with whether an individual takes
the medication as directed. For those that do, physical and
emotional dependence is still a very real risk. For those ingesting
the drug without medical supervision, the dependency risks are
extremely high.

Tolerance to this class of drug builds quickly with again, increased
risk to those taking OxyContin by chewing, snorting, or injecting for
the “rush”.

Withdrawal:
Hydrocodone withdrawal is often characterized by over-activity of the
physiologic functions that were suppressed by the drug and/or
depression of the functions that were stimulated by the drug.
Opioids often cause sleepiness, calmness, and constipation, so opioid
withdrawal often includes insomnia, anxiety, and diarrhea. Other
withdrawal symptoms include restlessness, sweating, chills, yawning,
muscle pain, teariness, and runny nose. Other symptoms include:
irritability, joint pain, backache, weakness, abdominal cramps,
insomnia, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, and increased blood pressure,
respiratory rate, or heart rate.

Treatment:
Any person using OxyContin for more than several weeks should consult
with a medical professional before stopping the drug. Generally
speaking, a gradual weaning off of the drug is optimal and less
traumatic to the user’s physical and emotional health. With a moderate
to severe addiction, an in patient detox in a hospital or medical
supervised setting is highly recommended for its multi- disciplinary
approach. While drug addiction is a treatable disease, relapse is
common and professional help is highly recommended.

Treatment Information:


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Mushroom Addiction Treatment



Description:

drug abuse help

Mushrooms
In the United States, hallucinogenic mushrooms are one of the most
frequently used hallucinogens after LSD.

Although many species of mushrooms have psychoactive properties,
Psilocybe Cubensis (Libery Cap) mushrooms are the most commonly used
species among recreational and religious users. Other lesser-used
species are Psilocybe Mexicana, Psilocybe Hoogshagenii and Psilocybe
Zapotecorum.  Nearly all of the psychoactive mushrooms are small,
brown or tan mushrooms and look very similar to any number of
non-psychoactive, inedible, or poisonous mushrooms growing in the wild.
This makes them somewhat difficult, and potentially hazardous, to
identify. On the street, these mushrooms are known as Mushrooms, Magic
Mushrooms, Mushies, Shrooms, Sillies, Boomers Caps or Fungus.

Background:
Native Americans in Central and South America have used Psilocybe
mushrooms for thousands of years. The first European record of their use
was in the 16th century writings of a Spanish priest who wrote about the
Aztec’s use of both mushrooms and peyote. In 1957, ethnobotanist R.
Gordon Wasson became the first in modern times
to document and publish a description of his own experience (Life
Magazine). In 1968 possession of psilocybin mushrooms was made illegal
in the United States.
Source: http://www.erowid.org/plants/mushrooms/mushrooms_basics.shtml

Usage:
The average dose of mushrooms is 1-5 grams. They are taken orally or, in
rare occurrences, smoked. Because of the less than pleasant taste, they
are often mixed with other foods or drinks. Street prices run $5-20 per
gram, $100 – $300 per ounce.

Effects:
In general, the hallucinogenic experience is very similar to an LSD
experience, but less intense and of shorter duration. The effects of
these mushrooms can vary considerably depending on the species, but for
Psilocybe mushrooms the user will typically experience effects including
feelings of being out of one’s body (ego loss), colorful hallucinations,
distortion in spatial perception, time, and color shift. At higher does,
users may experience lightheadedness, numbnesss of the tongue, lips or
mouth, shivering or sweating, nausea and/or vomiting, and anxiety.

As with LSD, depending on the general mood of the user, bad trips can
occur.

Dependency:
Physical Dependence: None
Psychological Dependence: Moderate
Tolerance: Moderate
Source: The Merck Manual: Sixteenth
Edition, published 1992

Treatment:
Psilocybin is a mild to moderately habit-forming substance with no
physical addiction. It should be noted, though, that virtually any
substance can be addictive, to a greater or lesser degree, depending on
the user. It is a generally accepted notion among treatment
professionals that the addiction, whether physical or psychological, is
the problem, not the specific substance. Below are some treatment
programs that may be useful for psilocybin users as well as others
seeking help with an addiction:


treatment helpline

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Meth Addiction and Abuse Treatment



Description:

drug abuse help

Meth
Methamphetamine (C10H15N), also known as
“speed,” “meth,” “crystal,”
“crank” or “ice,” is a chemical widely known for its
stimulant properties on the human body. It is a central nervous system
stimulant from the amphetamine family. Like cocaine, it produces
alertness, and elation, along with a variety of adverse reactions. The
effects of methamphetamine, however, are much longer lasting then the
effects of cocaine, yet the cost is roughly the same. For this reason,
methamphetamine is sometimes called the “poor man’s cocaine.”
It is frequently confused with other drugs that share similar symptoms,
including amphetamine, 4-methyl-aminorex(ice), ephedrine, caffeine, and
other chemicals, both legal and illegal. The word speed, in street
terms, often refers to any one of these substances.
Source: http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/meth/meth.shtml

Background:
First Synthesized in 1887, methamphetamine is made from the
drug ephedrine, an organic substance used as a medicine in China for
hundreds of years. In the 1930s it was sold in the U.S. as a nasal spray
for treatment of inflammation of nasal passages (ephedrine still is sold
for this purpose) and as treatment for narcolepsy (sudden sleep
disorder). During WWII, it was used by both sides to improve soldiers’
performance. This became a major problem in Japan after World War II as
they experienced the first known epidemic of methamphetamine abuse. In
1970, the Controlled Substances Act regulated the production of
methamphetamine.

Today much of the methamphetamine available on the street is illicit
and produced in clandestine laboratories in the United States and more
recently, Mexico. Because of this, questions always linger about the
quality of the drug.
Source: http://www.kci.org/meth_info/faq_meth.htm

Usage:
Methamphetmine can be smoked, snorted, injected, or taken orally, and
its appearance varies depending on how it is used. Typically, it is a
white, odorless, bitter-tasting powder that easily dissolves in water.
Because much of the methamphetamine in the U.S. is homemade, its color
and appearance can vary according to the skill of the chemist and the
raw materials used.
Source: http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/concern/amphetamines.html

Effects:
Methamphetamine’s effects include euphoria,
hyper-excitability, extreme nervousness, accelerated heartbeat,
sweating, dizziness, restlessness, insomnia, tooth grinding, incessant
talking, and other effects. Other effects include elevated blood
pressure, heart rate, and other general symptoms of increased nervous
activity, hyperthermia (extreme rise in body temperature as high as 108
degrees), and convulsions. Hyperthermia and convulsions sometimes can
result in death.

Users of large amount of methamphetamines over a long period of time
can develop an amphetamine psychosis, which is a mental disorder similar
to paranoid schizophrenia. The symptoms of this psychosis are
hallucinations, delusions, and extreme paranoia.
Source: http://www.lec.org/DrugSearch/Documents/Meth.html

Dependency:
Physical Dependence: moderate
Psychological Dependence: moderate to severe
Tolerance: strong

Withdrawal symptoms can occur when use of any amphetamines is stopped
abruptly. Users may experience fatigue; long, disturbed periods of
sleep; irritability; intense hunger, and moderate to severe depression.
The length and severity of the depression is related to the quantity
used and the frequency of use.
Source: http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/meth/meth.shtml

Treatment:
Methamphetamine is a highly addictive drug and assistance is often
needed to recover from this addiction. Below are some treatment programs
that may be useful for methamphetamine users as well as others:


treatment helpline

More Information:

Meth Chemistry Resources:
Due to the increased popularity of “home brewed” meth, it’s important for persons providing treatment for meth addiction, persons using meth, and the public at-large, to be aware of the basic chemistry and related hazards of methamphetamines; meth labs are frequently found in homes and other locations where one wouldn’t such activity to take place and thus it’s important to be aware.

LSD Abuse Treatment



Description:

drug abuse help

LSD
Lysergic acid diethylamide, better known as LSD, is probably the most
widely known and most commonly used hallucinogen in the U.S. On the
street, LSD is known as Acid, Cid, Trips, L, Doses, Vitamin L or Paper.
Probably the best known and most widely used of the psychedelics, LSD in
its base form, is a liquid. By the time it reaches the street, however,
it can take a variety of forms. The liquid is most often applied to
small squares of blotter paper usually decorated with artwork or designs
and perforated. Other forms include pills, gelatin shapes (known as
window pane), liquid and sugar cubes.

Background:
Albert Hofmann discovered LSD in 1938 in Basel, Switzerland while
researching blood stimulants. No research on LSD was conducted until
five years later when Hofmann accidentally ingested LSD for the first
time. Between 1943 and 1960, hundreds of academic papers were written on
LSD. Because of its structural similarity to a chemical present in the
brain and the similarity of its effects to certain aspects of psychosis,
LSD was, for a time, used as a research tool to study mental illness.
During the 1950s, the U.S. government conducted experiments on unwitting
participants in an operation code-named Project MK-Ultra.

The drug is believed to have first appeared on the
street in the U.S. in 1963 and by 1966 the mainstream media began
recognizing the widespread use of the LSD. It was also in 1966 that LSD
was made illegal in California, in 1967 the Federal government banned
the substance. Use of the drug waned somewhat after its initial
popularity in the 1960s, but LSD made a comeback in the 1990s.
Sources:
http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/lsd/lsd.shtml
http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/concern/lsd.htm

Usage:
A typical dose of LSD is between 50 and 150 micrograms. A single dose of
most blotter paper contains somewhere in this range, though this varies
depending on the source and there is no way for the average user to
determine the strength of a piece of blotter other than by word of
mouth. A single drop of liquid can contain a huge amount of LSD,
depending on how it was made, but is generally diluted so that one drop
is a single medium dose.

Sold by the single dose, blotter LSD sells for $2 to $25. Captive
markets such as raves generally produce high prices while in larger
cities and between friends, it is often sold at cheaper prices. Less
common forms of LSD sell for somewhat higher prices ($8-10 for a single
hit), and as with most substances, the price is lower when bought in
bulk. Sheets of 100 hits (blotter) generally range from $1-$2 per hit.
Source: http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/lsd/lsd.shtml

Effects:
An LSD trip generally lasts from 6-12 hours, depending on the dose. The
effects will begin to be felt 20-30 minutes after ingestion and the
“peak” of the trip occurs about 2 hours after taking the drug.
At the onset of an LSD experience, there is a vague feeling of
anticipation and increased energy as well as an undefined feeling that
something is different.

As the effects gain strength, a general change in sensory perception
occurs. This can include non-specific mental and physical stimulation,
pupil dilation, closed and open eye patterning and hallucinations,
changed thought patterns, feelings of insight, confusion, extreme mental
clarity, paranoia and quickly changing emotions. LSD is powerful
psychoactive and recent experiences, especially dramatic ones, can have
a substantial effect on a trip. Physically, or psychologically
unsettling events in the days before an LSD trip can blossom into
distress and trauma during a trip.
Source: http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/lsd/lsd_basics.shtml

Dependency:
Physical Dependence: None
Psychological Dependence: Moderate
Tolerance: Moderate
Source: The Merck Manual: Sixteenth
Edition, published 1992

Treatment:
LSD is a mild to moderately habit-forming substance with no physical
addiction. It should be noted, though, that virtually any substance can
be addictive, to a greater or lesser degree, depending on the user. It
is a generally accepted notion among treatment professionals that the
addiction, whether physical or psychological, is the problem, not the
specific substance. Below are some treatment programs that may be useful
for LSD users as well as others:


treatment helpline


Treatment links:

More Information:

Ketamine Abuse Treatment



Description:

drug abuse help

Ketamine (C13H16 ClNO M.W. 237.73) hydrochloride is a short-acting dissociative anesthetic with hallucinogenic and painkilling qualities. Ketamine is occasionally administered to people as a general anesthetic but, more commonly it is used by vets for pet surgery. Popular in club and rave culture, street “K” is most often diverted in liquid form from vets’ offices or medical suppliers for illegal, recreational use.

Chemically related to PCP or “Angel Dust”, the most common trade names for Ketamine are Ketalar and Ketaset. Ketamine’s street names include cat Valiums K, Special K, and Vitamin K.

Ketamine is currently a DEA Schedule III drug.
Sources:
http://www.drugabuse.gov/DrugPages/DrugsofAbuse.html
http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/ketamine/ketamine_chemistry.shtml
http://www.drug-rehabs.org/faqs/FAQ-ketamine.php

Background:
In 1962, while searching for PCP anesthetic replacements, Ketamine was first synthesized at Parke Davis Labs. Three years later, the drug was found to be useful as an anesthetic, primarily for veterinary use because its respiratory depression was far less than most other anesthetics. By the 1970’s patients began to report hallucinations while under its influence and in 1978, John Lilly’s book “The Scientist” enhanced Ketamine’s popularity. In the rave and club scene, Ketamine abuse waltzes beside gamma hydroxy butyrate (GHB) and MDMA (Ecstasy). All three are very popular with this party crowd and in the mid nineties, the DEA added Ketamine to its “emerging drugs list”. A few years later the media and legislators lumped it together with GHB as a “date rape drug”, and a “club drug”. In 1999 the DEA emergency scheduled Ketamine. Today, Ketamine is used for short-term surgical procedures in both animals and humans and the drug is legally sold only to hospitals and physicians.

Sources:
http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/ketamine/ketamine_basics.shtml
http://www.drug-rehabs.org/faqs/FAQ-ketamine.php

Usage:
Ketamine is prepared by evaporating the liquid from the legitimate prescribed injectable product and then grinding the residue into a powder. The liquid is dried by warming the liquid on low heat. In liquid form it is injected intramuscularly.

Alternatively, Ketamine is snorted or swallowed as a powder and sometimes smoked.
Sources:
http://www.drugabuse.gov/DrugPages/DrugsofAbuse.html
http://www.drug-rehabs.org/faqs/FAQ-ketamine.php

Effects:
Ketamine has become a staple at ‘rave’ parties, producing a dose-related progression of effects from a state of dreamy intoxication to delirium. Other effects include an inability to move, feel pain or remember what happened while under the drug’s influence.

Ketamine’s benefit as an anesthetic is its ability to block nerve paths without depressing respiratory and circulatory functions. Some of Ketamine’s primary effects include increased heart rate and blood pressure, impaired motor function, memory loss, numbness, nausea and vomiting.

Ketamine “trips” have been described as experiencing alternate planes of existence, past and future revelations, and being “at one with the universe”. Users often experience communication difficulties and an inability to see or hear others in the same room.
Sources:
http://www.drugabuse.gov/DrugPages/DrugsofAbuse.html
http://www.drug-rehabs.org/faqs/FAQ-ketamine.php
http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/ketamine/ketamine_faq.shtml#11

Side Effects:
Ketamine can produce profound physical and mental problems including delirium, amnesia, impaired motor function and potentially fatal respiratory problems. Two psychological problems associated with regular use Ketamine are paranoia and egocentrism.

Other effects include panic, rage and paranoia. Some user’s experience a feeling of paralysis, slurring, euphoria, confusion, nausea and vomiting. Ketamine users literally “feel no pain”, increasing the likelihood of causing injury or harm to themselves without even knowing it. Users are often unaware they are hallucinating and some enter the “K Hole” – purportedly similar to a “near death” experience.
Source:
http://www.drug-rehabs.org/faqs/FAQ-ketamine.php

Cautionary Notes:
In the rave and club scene these days, substances sold as Ketamine or Special K are often mixed with other drugs, including heroin, coke, and ecstasy. Any such drugs combined with Ketamine are a potentially lethal combination with minimal psychedelic value.

High doses of Ketamine may induce delirium, depression, respiratory depression and arrest. As an anesthetic, a Ketamine overdose will knock you out just as if you had received a general anesthetic in an operating room. Continuous use in large doses can induce unconsciousness and cardiac arrest, leading to death. If an overdose is suspected, seek IMMEDIATE medical attention.

Ketamine should never be combined with central nervous system depressants, particularly alcohol, barbiturates, and benzodiazepenes such as Valium.

Other Precautions:

*Do Not Operate Heavy Machinery.

*Do Not Drive.

*Do Not Swim and avoid bodies of water. At least one Ketamine associated death has been recorded from a user who drowned while taking a bath.

Sources:
http://www.drug-rehabs.org/faqs/FAQ-ketamine.php
http://www.drugabuse.gov/DrugPages/DrugsofAbuse.html
http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/ketamine/ketamine_faq.shtml#1
http://leda.lycaeum.org/?ID=9251

Dependency:
While Ketamine is generally considered to be more psychologically addicting, its physical hold is also incredibly powerful on an individual. Regular users may find it extremely difficult to stop.
Ketamine’s seductive and tremendous psychological dependence results from the dissociation from one’s consciousness experienced with the drug.

If used regularly, users of Special K can quickly build a tolerance to the drug’s effects. Special K is illegal and possession can result in long prison terms.

Tolerance is a diminished response to a drug. It is the effect of cellular adaptive changes or enhanced drug metabolism from extended use of a medication. Tolerance develops over days, weeks, or months.

According to the FDA, addiction is characterized by compulsive use, use for non-medical purposes, and continued use despite harm or risk of harm.
Sources:
http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/ketamine/ketamine_faq.shtml#1
http://www.drug-rehabs.org/faqs/FAQ-ketamine.php

Withdrawal:
It does not appear that Ketamine produces withdrawal symptoms in chronic users. However, abstaining long term users report tension, twitching, decreased attention span, and restlessness. These symptoms may be due more to the sedative norketamine (a breakdown product of ketamine) lingering in the blood stream.

If you are a long term Ketamine user, it is advisable to stop taking it under medical supervision. Sudden cessation of the drug in long term users may produce unpredictable effects.
Source:
http://www.thegooddrugsguide.com/ketamine/addiction.htm

Treatment:
With a moderate to severe addiction from relatively long term use, an in patient detox in a hospital or medical supervised setting is available. Lower levels of dependence can usually be handled under a knowledgeable physician’s supervision with minimal discomfort. Treatment will ultimately depend on the degree of addiction.

However a person chooses to free themselves from the clutches of a drug, there is one constant each needs: Support. Narcotics Anonymous remains a successful choice for many addicts, with world-wide availability. The “information age” has produced numerous on line support forums, popular with many recovering addicts, useful to some addicts as their sole means of support and for others, as adjunct therapy. Drug addiction is treatable, with help out there for everyone.

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