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Heroin Addiction


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Diacetylmorphine (C21H23NO5) is
the chemical name for street heroin. A narcotic derivative of the opium
poppy plant, heroin falls into the class of drugs known as
“opiates.” Opiates are derived from the dried “milk” of the
opium poppy, which contains morphine and codeine, both of which are
effective painkillers and are used in many prescription medicines (Opioids,
on the other hand, are synthetically derived opiate-like drugs). On the
street heroin is known as “Smack”, “Junk”, “Skag”,
“Shit”, “H”, “Brown”, “Horse”,
“Dope” and “Boy”.

Pure heroin is a white powder with a bitter taste. Most heroin is
distributed in powder form and may vary in color from white to dark
brown due to the impurities left from the manufacturing process or the
presence of additives and diluting agents. There is also a less-refined
form of heroin known as “Black Tar” made predominantly in
Mexico, which is a gooey black or brownish substance. Heroin is illegal
in the U.S. for any use.

Although Sumerian texts from 6,000 years ago refer to the
opium poppy as the “joy” plant, heroin itself was not
developed until 1874 and was originally marketed as a safe,
non-addictive substitute for morphine. However, it too was soon found to
produce a severe dependency very quickly. Heroin and opiates were made
illegal in 1915 with the Harrison Narcotic Act, which controlled the
sale of opium and opium derivatives, and cocaine.

Heroin is used in a number of ways: Injected into a vein
(“mainlining”), injected into a muscle, smoked in a water pipe
or standard pipe, mixed in a marijuana joint or regular cigarette,
inhaled as smoke through a straw ( known as “chasing the
dragon”), snorted as powder via the nose.

On the street, powdered heroin is usually sold in glassine bags
weighing about 100mg or 1/10th of one gram. Black tar heroin
is sold by the gram weight. The purity of street heroin has skyrocketed
in the last twenty years. In 1980 the average bag of street heroin was
4% pure; the average street bag today is 34% pure and can be as pure as
Source: NIDA

Heroin is, generally speaking, a sedative, and induces a
euphoric, drowsy, warm and content feeling. They also relieve stress and
discomfort by creating a relaxed detachment from pain, desires and
activity. As well as killing pain, moderate doses of pure opiates
produce a range of mild effects. They depress the activity of the
nervous system, including such reflexes as coughing, breathing and heart
rate. They also cause widening of the blood vessels, which gives a
feeling of warmth and reduces bowel activity, causing constipation.

With doses high enough to produce euphoria, there is still little
change in coordination. At higher doses though, sedation can be extreme
and an overdose can result in unconsciousness, coma and often death from
respiratory failure. The chance of an overdose is greatly increased if
other depressant drugs such as alcohol or tranquilizers are being used
at the same time.
Heroin is a highly addictive substance and can produce
dependence within only a few days of regular use. Because mild
withdrawal symptoms are similar to the flu, users often don’t realize
their “sickness” is actually withdrawal.

Physical Dependence: extreme
Psychological Dependence: extreme
Tolerance: extreme

Once addicted, the acute physical withdrawal is grueling and peaks
between 48 and 72 hours after the last dose. The intense part of
withdrawal lasts for 3-5 days, while protracted effects can last for
months. During this time, symptoms include vomiting, nausea, diarrhea,
cramping, muscle and bone pain, cold flashes with goose bumps, kicking
movements, and severe shaking. It can take months or even years to
recover from the addiction, and fighting the psychological addiction is
often a lifetime battle. During this extended withdrawal, recovering
addicts battle cravings and depression.
Source: NIDA

As noted above heroin is a highly addictive substance, both
physically and psychologically. Additionally, because of the nature of
addiction, the newly recovering user is often in a somewhat depleted
physical state. Because of this, the first step to treatment is usually
a physical detoxification done in a hospital or medically supervised
setting. After detoxification, residential treatment or twelve-step
programs, such as the ones listed below are generally recommended.

treatment helpline

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GHB Addiction Treatment


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Gamma-hydroxy-butyrate or GHB, as it is known on the street,
is a clear liquid (it is also available in powder form, but rarely
seen). The substance itself is colorless, odorless and nearly tasteless.
While GHB is found naturally in the brain and other tissues in very
small quantities, synthetic GHB is manufactured from its precursor,
gamma-butyrolactone (also known as GBL), which is a solvent, found in
floor cleaning products, nail polish and super glue removers.

Developed in 1961 by renowned French researcher Dr. Henri Laborit, GHB was originally
developed as an anesthetic, but was soon withdrawn due to unwanted side
effects. In the United States GHB was readily available in the 1980’s in
health food stores. It gained popularity through its use by body
builders who thought the drug would increase their body mass and was
used much like steroids are used. In 1990 the Federal Drug
Administration labeled GHB a “dangerous drug,” but did not
make it a controlled substance, subject to regulation under the federal
Controlled Substance Act.

In the mid to late 1990s GHB acquired a reputation as a
date-rape drug and is now in the process of being added to the DEA’s
list of Schedule I drugs. Most states though, have
restrictions on its use and sale. The FDA has revoked its federal
approval and has declared it available in the United States only as an
investigational new drug for specified purposes (usually scientific
study). GBL, though, is still available over-the-counter.

Dosages range from one gram or less, which is considered a mild dose to
upwards of five grams in a single dose. GHB is often sold on the street
in small bottles, approximately the size of a hotel shampoo bottle.
These bottles usually contain about ten doses and a dose is measured as
one capful. The powdered form of GHB can also be sniffed.

GHB depresses the respiratory system and reduces the amount
of oxygen the brain receives, resulting, with large doses, in
unconsciousness and loss of memory. At small doses, GHB encourages a
reduction of social inhibitions, similar to alcohol, and an increased
libido. At higher doses, this euphoria gives way to feelings of
sedation. Reported symptoms include vomiting, drowsiness, dizziness,
vertigo, and seizures. After excessive use, some users have experienced
loss of consciousness, irregular and depressed respiration, tremors or
coma. A number of deaths have occurred from GHB overdoses.
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1990 November 30

Physical Dependence: Reported but unconfirmed
Psychological Dependence: Moderate
Tolerance: Moderate

To the degree that it has been researched, GHB has been
determined to be moderately habit-forming. It should be noted, though,
that virtually any substance can be addictive, to a greater or lesser
degree, depending on the user. It is a generally accepted notion among
treatment professionals that the overall addiction, whether physical or
psychological, is the problem, not the specific substance. Below are
some treatment programs that may be useful for GHB users as well as

treatment helpline

More Information on GHB:

Fentanyl Addiction Treatment



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The Duragesic (fentanyl transdermal system) patch is a powerful opioid pain medication for moderate to severe chronic pain. Manufactured by Janssen Pharmaceutica Products, L.P., the chemical name of fentanyl is N-Phenyl-N-(1-2-phenylethyl-4-piperidyl) propanamide. The active component of the system is fentanyl. Less than 0.2 mL of alcohol is also released from the system during use. The molecular weight of fentanyl base is 336.5, and the chemical structural formula is C 22 H 28 N 2 O.

Duragesic is a DEA Schedule II narcotic and prescriptions require a DEA Order Form.

Street names for fentanyl include apache, china girl, china white, dance fever, friend, goodfella, jackpot, murder 8, TNT, and Tango and Cash.


With an analgesic potency of about 80 times that of morphine, fentanyl was introduced in the pharmacological world when it was first synthesized in Belgium in the late 1950s. A few years later, it was introduced into medical practice as an intravenous anesthetic under the trade name of Sublimaze. Thereafter, a number of ultra-short acting analgesics and potent analgesics were introduced. Today, fentanyls are widely used for anesthesia and analgesia. Duragesic is a fentanyl transdermal patch used in chronic pain management, and Actiq is a solid formulation of fentanyl citrate on a stick (like a lollipop) that dissolves slowly in the mouth for transmucosal absorption. Actiq is intended for opiate-tolerant individuals and is effective in treating breakthrough pain in cancer patients.

The illicit use of pharmaceutical fentanyls first appeared in the mid-1970s and remains a problem today. Illicit fentanyls are most commonly used by intravenous administration, but like heroin, they may also be smoked or snorted.

To date, over 12 different analogues of fentanyl have been produced secretly and identified in U.S. drug traffic. The biological effects of the fentanyls are comparable to those of heroin, with the exception that the fentanyls may be hundreds of times more potent.

Duragesic is a powerful narcotic painkiller for serious pain. It is generally only prescribed for long-lasting relief from intense, persistent and chronic pain. The Duragesic patch should only be used when less potent medicines have proved ineffective and pain needs to be controlled 24/7.

Duragesic patches are a transdermal system providing 72 hours of continuous systemic delivery of this potent opioid analgesic.

Duragesic is available in 4 color-coded patch strengths: 25 mg, 50 mg, 75 mg, and 100 mcg/hour. As with all pure opioid agonists, there is no analgesic ceiling effect with fentanyl, thus there are no dose-limiting adverse effects, and dosages can be gradually increased until adequate pain relief is achieved.

Duragesic should never be used in the following situations:

*where the right dosage hasn’t been established in advance – for instance, after an operation or an accident.
*for mild or intermittent pain that responds to other medications.
*in children under 12 or teenagers who weigh less than 110 pounds.

Never increase the amount or frequency without your doctor’s approval, or take this drug for any reason other than the one prescribed.

Fentanyl’s primary effect is on the central nervous system; its primary therapeutic effects are analgesia and sedation. Other effects of fentanyl may include mood changes, euphoria, dysphoria, or drowsiness. Fentanyl depresses the respiratory centers and the cough reflex and constricts the pupils. Nausea, vomiting, and postural syncope may also occur although more commonly in ambulatory patients.

Side Effects:
Typical side effects of Duragesic therapy include abdominal pain, anxiety, confusion, constipation, depression, diarrhea, dizziness, dry mouth, euphoria, hallucinations, headache, impaired or interrupted breathing, indigestion, itching, anorexia, nausea, agitation, shortness of breath, sleepiness, sweating, urinary retention, vomiting, and weakness.

Cautionary Notes:
The following contraindications can cause serious or life-threatening hypoventilation if Duragesic is used:

· For acute or post-operative pain
· For mild or intermittent pain responsive to PRN (take as needed) or non–opioid therapy
· In doses exceeding 25 µg/hour at the initiation of opioid therapy

General Caution:

*To ensure controlled drug delivery, do not cut or damage the Duragesic patch.
*Heat can increase the release of fentanyl from the Duragesic patch, increasing breathing difficulties and other side effects. Do not expose the patch to heating pads, electric blankets, heated water beds, heat lamps, saunas, hot tubs, or other external sources of heat. Alert your doctor if you develop a high fever (104 degrees Fahrenheit or more).
*Duragesic can impair your reactions. Do not drive or operate dangerous machinery until you know how this drug affects you.
*Duragesic’s tendency to reduce respiration can be especially dangerous if your breathing is impaired by chronic pulmonary disease.
*Duragesic is not recommended for people with head injuries and other conditions that increase pressure on the brain.
*If you have an irregular heartbeat, Duragesic can make the problem worse.
*Use Duragesic with caution if you have kidney or liver disease.
*This medicine should be used with caution by patients with a known allergy to morphine, codeine, or acetaminophen products.

It is very important to check with your physician before combining Duragesic with the following:

*Antifungal medications such as Diflucan, Nizoral, and Sporanox
*HIV drugs classified as protease inhibitors, including Agenerase, Crixivan, Fortovase, Invirase, Kaletra, Norvir, and Viracept
*Macrolide antibiotics such as erythromycin, Biaxin, and Zithromax

Drugs that may decrease the effects of Duragesic:

*Carbamazepine (Tegretol)
*Phenytoin (Dilantin)
*Rifampin (Rifadin)

Fentanyl is a central nervous system depressant and intensifies the effects of alcohol. Do not drink alcohol while taking this medication.

When wearing a Duragesic patch, check with your doctor before taking any other central nervous system (CNS) depressant drugs. The combined effect can lead to difficulty breathing, hypotension, and possibly coma.

Drugs in this category include the following:

*Antipsychotic drugs such as Compazine, Mellaril, Stelazine, and Thorazine
*Muscle relaxants such as Flexeril, Robaxin, and Skelaxin
*Narcotic painkillers such as Demerol, Percodan, OxyContin, and Vicodin
*Sleep aids such as Ambien, Halcion, and Sonata
*Sleep-inducing antihistamines such as Benadryl and Phenergan
*Tranquilizers such as Ativan, Librium, Valium, and Xanax
*Alcoholic beverages


Users are susceptible to an overdose if they take too much transdermal fentanyl, or combine it with excessive amounts of another narcotic. An overdose can cause severe breathing problems (breathing may even stop), unconsciousness, and death. Serious signs of an overdose include very slow breathing and drowsiness so severe the person is unresponsive. Other signs of an overdose include cold, clammy skin; low blood pressure; pinpoint pupils of eyes; and slow heartbeat. If this occurs, get emergency help right away.

As a Schedule II controlled substance, fentanyl can produce drug dependence similar to that produced by morphine. Fentanyl has the potential for abuse, often leading to physical and psychological dependence, but may be a necessary evil to control chronic pain. Your doctor will have to take these factors into account before prescribing this drug.

Tolerance is when ever increasing doses are required to produce the same degree of analgesia. Tolerance is initially manifested by a decreased duration of analgesic effect, followed by decreases in the intensity of analgesia. Tolerance develops over days, weeks, or months. The rate of tolerance varies among patients.

According to the FDA, addiction is characterized by compulsive use, use for non-medical purposes, and continued use despite harm or risk of harm.

When patients no longer require Duragesic, they must work with their physician to set a gradual taper schedule to avoid acute withdrawal.

After the patch is removed, it takes 17 hours or more for a 50 percent decrease in serum fentanyl concentrations. If you are planning to discontinue use of Duragesic, a gradual dosage decrease is recommended since it is not known what dose level the drug may be discontinued without producing the signs and symptoms of abrupt withdrawal.

Do not stop taking Duragesic without first checking with your doctor. Regular use will produce physical dependency in a few weeks which can lead to severe withdrawal if use is suddenly stopped. This can generally be avoided by reducing the dose gradually over a period of time before stopping treatment completely.

If during withdrawal, you experience any of the following symptoms, contact your physician:

Anxiety, body aches, diarrhea; rapid heartbeat, fever, runny nose or sneezing, chills, sweating, yawning, anorexia, nausea or vomiting,; nervousness, irritability, shivering or trembling, stomach cramps, insomnia, and weakness.

After you stop using this medicine, your body may need time to adjust. The length of time this takes depends on the amount of medicine you were using and how long you used it.

Of Note:

Duragesic may cause physical dependence. Physical dependence results in withdrawal symptoms in patients who abruptly discontinue the drug. Withdrawal also may be precipitated by the administration of drugs with opioid antagonist activity, such as naloxone, nalmefene, or mixed agonist/antagonist analgesics (pentazocine, butorphanol, buprenorphine, nalbuphine).

Due to the fact that Duragesic is only prescribed for long-term, severe pain problems, patients must taper down slowly under a knowledgeable physician’s care, or, enter a detox center for 24/7 treatment. With a moderate to severe addiction from relatively long term use, an in patient detox in a hospital or medical supervised setting is highly recommended for its multi- disciplinary approach. Dependence resulting from even a few weeks of regular use can usually be handled under a physician’s supervision with minimal discomfort. Treatment will ultimately depend on the degree of addiction.

However a person chooses to free themselves from the clutches of a drug, there is one constant everyone needs and that is support. Narcotics Anonymous remains a successful choice for many addicts, with world-wide availability. The “information age” has produced numerous on line support forums, popular with many recovering addicts, useful to some addicts as their sole means of support and for others, as adjunct therapy. Drug addiction is treatable, with help out there for everyone.

Treatment Information:

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Self Help:

Treatment Centers:

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Ephedra Addiction and Treatment



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In February of 2004, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a final rule prohibiting the sale of dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids (ephedra). Also known as Ma huang, the FDA has determined such supplements pose an unreasonable risk of illness or injury to consumers and the rule is effective 60 days from the date of publication.

The FDA’s final puts manufacturers on notice that dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury. Consequently, this ruling affects all currently marketed dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. The extent of the rule does not pertain to traditional Chinese herbal remedies. Affected are all dietary supplements that contain a source of ephedrine alkaloids, such as ephedra, Ma huang, Sida cordifolia and pinellia.

Ephedra, or ephedrine sulfate, is a naturally occurring substance derived from plants. Its principal active ingredient is ephedrine, which when chemically synthesized is regulated as a drug under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. In recent years ephedra products have been widely promoted to boost weight loss, sports performance, and energy. In addition, ephedra is enormously popular with dieters because it suppresses appetite and boosts energy. It is known under many names including Desert or Mormon tea.

Ephedra’s active medicinal ingredients are the alkaloids ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. Both ephedrine and its synthetic counterparts stimulate the (CNS) central nervous system, dilate the bronchial tubes, increase blood pressure, and heart rate. Pseudoephedrine (the synthetic form) is a popular over-the-counter remedy for nasal congestion.

Ephedra is listed as one of the original 365 herbs from the classical first century A.D. text on Chinese herbalism by Shen Nong. The Chinese have used ephedra medicinally for over 5,000 years. While the active constituent, ephedrine, was first isolated in 1887, it was not until 1924 that the herb became popular with physicians in the U.S. for its broncho-dilating and decongesting properties.

Popular in China, ephedra is known as Tsaopen-Ma Huang. Its active ingredient, ephedrine, is the main component in the well-known asthma remedy Primatene. Ephedra grows mainly in Mongolia and the bordering area of China.

Ephedra is used as a stimulant and for mild respiratory disorders, including asthma and bronchitis. In Asian medicine, it is used for fever, swelling, and bone pain. Ephedrine, the principle alkaloid, a popular ingredient in many “herbal” weight loss and body building formulas, decongestants, “legal high” alternatives, and ephedrine-based pep pills.

Ephedra is available in crushed herb form, tinctures, and as a liquid extract. Be sure to follow manufacturer directions as potencies vary.

General guidelines for adults are as follows:

Tea: Use 1 to 4 grams of crushed Ephedra; take 3 times daily.
Liquid extract: 1 to 3 milliliters (about one-quarter to one-half teaspoonful) 3 times daily.
Tincture (1:1): The usual single dose is 5 grams (1 teaspoonful).
Tincture (1:4): 6 to 8 milliliters (about 1 to 11/2 teaspoonfuls) 3 times daily.

Do not exceed the manufacturer’s recommended dosage because ephedra can be very harmful to your health.

Ephedra’s value for respiratory problems derives from the calming effect it has on spasms in the bronchial walls. At the same time, ephedra stimulates the nervous system, and boosts the rate and strength of heart contractions. It also tends to discourage the growth of bacteria.

Side Effects:
Ephedra has many potential side effects including sleeplessness, restlessness, irritability, headache, nausea, vomiting, urinary disorders, and rapid heartbeat. Higher doses can stimulate a sharp rise in blood pressure and disrupt heart rhythm.
Chronic use can lead to tolerance and dependence, requiring ever larger doses to obtain earlier effects. Due to these dangers, ephedra should only be used for short periods of time.

Cautionary Notes:
Combining ephedra with certain other drugs can increase, decrease, alter the effects, and induce potentially serious problems. Ephedra should not be combined with:

*heart drugs such as digitalis or digoxin (Lanoxin) because ephedra is more likely to disturb heart rhythm.
*the blood pressure medication guanethidine (Ismelin)as ephedra can seriously magnify the herb’s stimulative effects.
*drugs classified as MAO inhibitors, such as the antidepressants Nardil and Parnate and the Parkinson’s disease medication Eldepryl.
*ergot-based migraine drugs such as Ergomar and Wigraine with Ephedra can induce high blood pressure.

Special Notes:

Because of its effect on the heart, ephedra can be very dangerous when taken in excessive amounts.

Do not take ephedra if you have high blood pressure, glaucoma, weakened blood vessels in the brain, prostate cancer, an overactive adrenal gland, or a thyroid disorder. It’s generally wise to avoid ephedra if you have any condition that makes you anxious or restless.

Adverse CNS effects associated with ephedrine toxicity include anxiety, insomnia, restlessness, psychosis and seizures. The major cardiovascular toxicity includes hypertension and tachyarrhythmias. If you experience any of these symptoms, seek medical attention immediately. According to the New England Journal of Medicine, a number of deaths resulting from symptoms of ephedra toxicity have been reported.


Ephedra’s toxic effects are primarily due to ephedrine, and to a lesser extent, pseudoephedrine. Both stimulate the adrenergic system and ephedrine toxicity may be noticeable with doses only 2 to 3 times the therapeutic range.

Doses of more than 100 grams (about 3 ounces) can be life-threatening. Symptoms of overdose include severe sweating, enlarged pupils, spasms, and increased body temperature. Death results from heart failure and suffocation.
If you suspect an overdose, seek emergency treatment immediately.

According to a recent report on 20/20, many ephedra fans believe it is not a drug because the active ingredient comes from a plant. However, ephedra is a stimulant that increases the heart rate, blood pressure, and speeds up brain activity. There is little doubt ephedra is addictive or habit forming, particularly due to the ever increasing number of people taking it in high dosages, however unwittingly.

Extended use can lead to tolerance and dependence, requiring ever increasing doses to obtain an effect. Due to these dangers, you should only take ephedra for short periods of time.

Tolerance is a diminished response to a drug. It is the effect of cellular adaptive changes or enhanced drug metabolism that develops over days, weeks, or months from the extended use of a medication. Ephedra users are susceptible to tolerance.

If you have been a long term ephedra user, and/or taking larger quantities than recommended by the manufacturer, consult your physician to help you discontinue this medication in a careful and safe manner.

If you are a long term ephedra user, do not stop taking it without first checking with your doctor. Suddenly stopping this medicine may cause dangerous withdrawal side effects; your doctor will gradually taper your dosage before stopping completely.

A moderate to severe addiction may necessitate an in patient detox in a hospital or medical supervised setting. Treatment will ultimately depend on the degree of addiction.

However a person chooses to free themselves from the clutches of a drug, there is one constant each needs: Support. Narcotics Anonymous remains a successful choice for many addicts, with world-wide availability. The “information age” has produced numerous on line support forums, popular with many recovering addicts, useful to some addicts as their sole means of support and for others, as adjunct therapy. Drug addiction is treatable, with help out there for everyone.

Treatment Information:

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Self Help:


Treatment Centers:

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Ecstasy Abuse Treatment


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Ecstasy Pill
MDMA or 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine (C11H15NO2)
is an amphetamine derivative. This synthetic chemical can be extracted
from an essential oil of the sassafrass tree. On the street, MDMA is
known as “Ecstasy”, “X”, “XTC”,
“E”, “M”, “truck driver”,
“beans” or “rolls”. It’s effects include euphoria,
an increase in emotional openness and a mild to moderate stimulant

Ecstasy was first patented in Germany in 1912 as a
potential appetite suppressant though it wasn’t until the 1970s that Dr.
Alexander Shulgin introduced ecstasy to those with an interest in
drug-assisted psychotherapy and medical and psychiatric journals began
to present articles on its psycho-activity. In the late 1970s and early
1980s MDMA was used as a psychotherapeutic tool and also started to
become available on the street. It gained wider popularity and at the
time it was banned by the D.E.A, in 1985, many truck drivers had begun
using it as a stimulant.
Source: Drug Experts Report a Boom in Ecstasy Use; WILLIAM K.
RASHBAUM; New York Times; 2-26-00

Street doses of MDMA generally run from 50mg. to 150 mg. 100mg. or
1/10th of one gram is considered an average single dose.
Usually pressed into pills or loaded into placebo capsules, the primary
method of use is orally. A powder form of MDMA can also be sniffed but
this is less common. Much less frequent than sniffing is the injection
or smoking of the drug, though this does occur. There are a number of
analogs (chemically similar substances) of MDMA that are commonly sold
as ecstasy on the street. These include MDA and MDEA (known as
“Eve”). Additionally, ecstasy is notoriously unreliable in
content, much more so than most other street drugs. “Ecstasy”
pills have been known to contain caffeine, ephedrine, amphetamines, MDA,
MDEA, DXM, heroin, cocaine and often don’t contain any MDMA or any
psychoactive drug at all.

Mild to moderate doses of ecstasy produce a euphoric sense of
well-being and a feeling of connectedness with and empathy for other
people, an enhanced sense of pleasure and self-confidence and increased
energy. This “love effect” has become most closely associated
with ecstasy use. Its stimulant effect has made it a favorite on the
club and “rave” circuits. In overdoses or misuses though,
users can experience confusion, disorientation, anxiety, panic attacks,
depression, insomnia, perceptual disorders and hallucinations, paranoia
and psychosis.

Ecstasy has a physiological effect that is similar to amphetamine and
cocaine. As such, studies have concluded that even mild to moderate use
may cause changes in the way the brain produces and distributes neuro-transmitters
(the chemicals, like serotonin and dopamine, known to play a role in
regulating mood, memory, appetite, sleep, aggression, sexual activity
and sensitivity to pain.) leading to long-term depression and other
mental illness (depending on the definition of “mental

Physical Dependence: Reported but unconfirmed
Psychological Dependence: Moderate
Tolerance: Moderate

To the degree that it has been researched, which is only
superficially, MDMA has not been determined to be habit-forming. It
should be noted, though, that virtually any substance can be addictive,
to a greater or lesser degree, depending on the user. It is a generally
accepted notion among treatment professionals that the overall
addiction, whether physical or psychological, is the problem, not the
specific substance. Listed below are some treatment programs that may be
useful for MDMA users as well as others:

treatment helpline

More Information: