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DXM Addiction, Abuse, and Treatment



Description:

drug abuse help

DXM Dextromethorphan hydrobromide(DXM HBr) is the water-soluble salt of
dextromethorphan (DXM) and hydrobromic acid and the most common form of
DXM.

DXM itself is a synthetically produced substance related to codeine,
but without the analgesic, sedating, or constipating effects of opiates.
It has replaced codeine as the most widely used over-the-counter cough
suppressant. It is sold under the brand names Benylin DM, Pertussin,
Vicks Formula 44 and Robitussin Pediatric among others. Used for this
purpose it is both extremely safe and very effective. DXM, though, is
one of the few over-the-counter medicines with any serious recreational
use/abuse potential. Used recreationally, often on the club circuit, it
is referred to as “Robo”, “X” or “rome”.

Background:
DXM has been in use in the USA for approximately 30 years. In the mid
1980s, though, several deaths following ingestion of large doses of
dextromethorphan prompted the Swedish government to restrict this
compound to prescription-only status. It is, however, still widely
available over-the-counter in the United States. The pharmaceutical
potential of dextromethorphan does not appear to have been fully
explored yet. According to recent studies (performed predominantly on
animals), the substance also has shown promise in fighting both epilepsy
and Parkinson’s disease. Other studies though, have indicated possible
fetal abnormalities and brain damage in test cases. Remarkably, very
little is known definitively about DXM or its long-term effects.

Usage:
When used as intended for cough suppression, typical dosages
run about 10 to 20mg. every 4 hours or 30mg every 6 to 8 hours. When
used recreationally, dosages are generally much higher, in the range of
250 to 1500 mg. taken as a single dose.
Source: B. Brands, B. Sproule, and J.
Marshman (Eds), Drugs and Drug Abuse: A Reference Text, 1998, Ontario:
Addiction Research Foundation, pp. 571-2.

The method of use varies as the drug is available over-the-counter in
capsules, lozenges, tablets, oral suspension and cough syrup.
Source: Physicians Desk Reference

Effects:
Lower doses cause euphoria, stupor, excitability and changes
in muscle reflexes.

Large doses in the range of 250 to 1500 mg are known to cause
euphoric and hallucinatory effects. Proper dosages are, however, very
specific to the person taking the drug. There is a fine line between a
dose causing pleasant effects and one that may cause negative effects
ranging from mildly unpleasant– skin irritation, shortness of
breath, dizziness, temporary sexual dysfunction, nausea and hangovers–
to more serious ones like coma, brain damage, liver damage, respiratory
distress and death. Generally, the more serious side effects are a
result of combining DXM with alcohol and other drugs.

Dependency:
Physical Dependence: Unknown
Psychological Dependence: Moderate
Tolerance: Moderate

Treatment:
As has been noted, little is known about DXM with respect to
long-term use and addiction. DXM is thought to be a moderately
habit-forming substance with no physical addiction. It should be noted,
though, that virtually any substance can be addictive, to a greater or
lesser degree, depending on the user. It is a generally accepted notion
among treatment professionals that the addiction, whether physical or
psychological, is the problem, not the specific substance. Below are
some treatment programs that may be useful for DXM users as well as
others:


treatment helpline

More Information on Dextromethorphan:

Dilaudid Abuse Treatment

 

Description:

drug abuse help

Hydromorphone Hydrochloride (C17H19NO3 • MW 285.34)
is the brand name for Dilaudid, a narcotic analgesic manufactured by Abbott Laboratories Inc.

Dilaudid is in the analgesic, antiussive, anesthesia adjunct, opioid analgesic category and Schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act. Street names for Dilaudid include Little D and Dillies.

Each Dilaudid tablet includes the following inactive ingredients: lactose anhydrous, and magnesium stearate. Dilaudid tablets may contain traces of sodium bisulfite.
Sources:
http://www.drugs.com
http://www.lycaeum.org
http://www.ctclconsult.com

Background:
While morphine was first used medicinally as a painkiller, ironically, it was touted as a cure for opium addiction. It quickly replaced opium as a recreational drug and doctor recommended cure-all and became readily available from drugstores or through the mail. Morphine was used during the American Civil War as a surgical anesthetic and was sent home with many wounded soldiers for relief of pain. At the end of the war, over 400,000 people had the “army disease,” or, morphine addiction.

In 1906 the Pure Food and Drug Act enacted various labeling laws and importation restrictions and the Harrison Narcotics Act (1914) prohibited possession of narcotics unless prescribed by a physician. Despite legislation, morphine maintained much of its popularity until heroin came into use.
Source:
http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/m1/morphine.asp

Indications:
Dilaudid is a strong narcotic analgesic, commonly prescribed for the relief of moderate to severe pain. Dilaudid has two to eight times the painkilling effects of morphine.

Typically, this drug is used for conditions associated with severe pain. Such indications include burns, cancer, surgical pain, injury, heart attack, and other conditions.
Sources:
http://www.pdrhealth.com
http://www.erowid.org

Usage:
Dilaudid tablets are intended to be swallowed whole and are available in 1 mg, 2 mg, 3 mg, 4 mg, and 8 mg strengths for oral administration. 3 mg suppositories are also available. In the oral liquid formula, each mL contains 1 mg HCl hydromorphone and miscellaneous non-medicinal ingredients.

When abused, Dilaudid tablets are taken orally, crushed and then snorted, or dissolved in water and “cooked” for intravenous injection.
<br
Never increase the amount or frequency without your doctor’s approval, or take this drug for any reason other than the one prescribed.
Sources:
http://www.pdrhealth.com
http://www.rxmed.com

Effects:
Hydromorphone’s effects are markedly similar to morphine, except the euphoria is closer to codeine. Nausea and vomiting is quite rare, and sedation is practically non-existent.

Hydromorphone’s abuse potential comes from the fact that its euphoric intravenous rush is very similar to heroin’s. Hydromorphone is one of the most prescribed opioids in the relief of pain for the terminally ill due to its minimal side effects and high potency.

Generally, when given intravenously, Dialudid’s analgesic action is apparent within 15 minutes and remains in effect for more than 5 hours. The onset of action of oral hydromorphone is somewhat slower, with measurable analgesia occurring within 30 minutes.
Sources:
http://www.rxmed.com
http://www.leda.lycaeum.org

Side Effects:
Typical side effects of Dilaudid usage include anorexia, anxiety, constipation, dizziness, drowsiness, fear, impairment of mental and physical performance, inability to urinate, mental clouding, mood changes, nausea, restlessness, sedation, somnolence, sluggishness, troubled and slowed breathing, and vomiting.
Sources:
http://www.pdrhealth.com
http://www.rxmed.com

Cautionary Notes:
Dilaudid is a narcotic with an addiction liability similar to that of morphine. For this reason, the same precautions should be taken in administering this drug as with morphine.

Rapid intravenous injection of Dilaudid increases the possibility of adverse effects, such as hypotension and respiratory depression. Extreme caution must be used.

As with any narcotic analgesic agent, the usual precautions should be observed and the possibility of respiratory depression should be kept in mind. If a patient shows signs of hypersensitivity to Dilaudid, the treatment should be stopped.

Possible Food and Drug Interactions when taking this Medication:

Dilaudid is a central nervous system depressant and therefore intensifies the effects of alcohol. Do not drink alcohol while taking this medication.

Check with your doctor before combining Dilaudid with the following:

* Antiemetics such as Compazine and Phenergan
* Antihistamines such as Benadryl
* General anesthetics
* Other central nervous system depressants such as Nembutal, Restoril
* Other narcotic analgesics such as Demerol and Percocet
* Phenothiazines such as Thorazine
* Sedative/hypnotics such as Valium and Halcion
* Tranquilizers such as Xanax
* Tricyclic antidepressants such as Elavil and Tofranil

Overdosage:

Serious overdose with hydromorphone presents with respiratory depression, extreme somnolence progressing to stupor or coma, skeletal muscle flaccidity, cold and clammy skin, and sometimes bradycardia (very slow heart rate) and hypotension. In severe cases, apnea, circulatory collapse, cardiac arrest and death may occur.
Sources:
http://www.pdrhealth.com
http://www.rxmed.com

Dependency:
Dilaudid has a moderately high dependency potential, with addiction or dependence occurring when used for longer than a few weeks, or at high doses. People who have been dependent on alcohol or other drugs in the past generally have a greater chance of becoming addicted to Dilaudid.

Psychic dependence, physical dependence, and tolerance may develop upon repeated administration of hydromorphone.

Tolerance is when ever increasing doses are required to produce the same degree of analgesia. Tolerance is initially manifested by a decreased duration of analgesic effect, followed by decreases in the intensity of analgesia. Tolerance develops over days, weeks, or months. The rate of tolerance varies among patients.

Psychic dependence is unlikely when hydromorphone is used for a short period of time.

Physical dependence is when continued use of the drug is needed to avoid withdrawal symptoms. This problem only becomes relevant after several (2 weeks to 2 months) of continued narcotic use. When taken as directed, Dilaudid can produce physical dependence in a few weeks time.

According to the FDA, addiction is characterized by compulsive use, use for non-medical purposes, and continued use despite harm or risk of harm.

Patients no longer requiring Dilaudid, should set a gradual taper schedule to avoid acute withdrawal.
Sources:
http://www.addictionwithdrawal.com/dilaudid.htm
http//:www.erowid.org

Withdrawal:
Withdrawal symptoms from Dilaudid can occur four to five hours after the last dose and continue for 7 to 10 days.

Dilaudid withdrawal symptoms can be severe and include: anxiety, insomnia, profuse sweating, muscle spasms, chills, shivering, restlessness, yawning, disturbed sleep, irritability, anxiety, weakness, twitching and spasms of muscles, restless legs, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, intestinal spasm, diarrhea, repetitive sneezing, hot and cold flashes, severe back, leg and abdominals pains and cramps. Frequently, an increase in body temperature, blood pressure, respiratory and heart rate may be present.

If you have used Dilaudid for more than a few weeks, do not stop taking it without first checking with your doctor. Suddenly stopping this medicine may cause severe withdrawal side effects. Your doctor will gradually taper your dosage before stopping completely.

The severity of withdrawal symptoms experienced is directly related to the amount of Dilaudid taken and the length of time over which it has been taken.
Source:
http://www.addictionwithdrawal.com/dilaudid.htm

Treatment:
To avoid severe withdrawal, regular Dilaudid users must taper down slowly under a knowledgeable physician’s care, or, enter a detox center for 24/7 treatment. With a moderate to severe addiction from relatively long term use, an in patient detox in a hospital or medical supervised setting is highly recommended for its multi- disciplinary approach. Dependence resulting from even a few weeks of regular use can usually be handled under a physician’s supervision with minimal discomfort. Treatment will ultimately depend on the degree of addiction.

However a person chooses to free themselves from the clutches of a drug, there is one constant each needs: Support. Narcotics Anonymous remains a successful choice for many addicts, with world-wide availability. The “information age” has produced numerous on line support forums, popular with many recovering addicts, useful to some addicts as their sole means of support and for others, as adjunct therapy. Drug addiction is treatable, with help out there for everyone.

Treatment Information:


treatment helpline
Self Help:

Treatment Centers:

More Information:

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Dexedrine Addiction and Treatment

 

Description:

drug abuse help

Dexedrine is the brand name for dextroamphetamine sulfate, manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline. This medication is a respiratory and cerebral stimulant, and a Schedule II controlled substance with a high abuse liability.

Dexedrine (dextroamphetamine sulfate) is the dextro isomer of the compound d,1-amphetamine sulfate, a sympathomimetic amine of the amphetamine group. Chemically, dextroamphetamine is d-a-methylphenethylamine, and is present in all forms of Dexedrine as the neutral sulfate.

Other trade names for dextroamphetamine sulfate include Biphetamine, Adderal, and Dextrostat. Dexedrine street names are bennies, black beauties, crosses, hearts, LA turnaround, speed, truck drivers, and uppers.
Sources:
http://www.drugabuse.gov/DrugPages/DrugsofAbuse.html
http://www.rxlist.com

Background:
Dexedrine is an amphetamine, belonging to the group of medicines called central nervous system (CNS) stimulants. Dexedrine was initially developed in the 1920’s to treat depression and obesity. The use of Dexedrine to control hyperactivity in children has been known since its development but Dexedrine did not receive FDA approval for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) use until the 1950’s.

Dexedrine became very popular in the late 60s and early 70s as a prescription diet aid because of its ability to suppress appetite. Dexedrine was frequently (and illegally) used by college students, either for the stimulant high it provided or to keep them awake while studying.

Amphetamines were first synthesized in Germany in 1887 and for a long time after, appeared to be a drug in search of a disease. By the 1920’s, it was considered a cure or treatment for everything from depression to decongestion. A decade later, it was marketed both as Benzedrine in an over-the-counter inhaler to treat asthmatics, and for nasal congestion. Whether the subsequent amphetamine abuse was fueled by Prohibition or the Depression we will never know, but this cough medicine became widely used by people without asthma, breathing or congestion problems. By 1937, amphetamine tablets became available by prescription.
Sources:
http://www.drug-rehabs.org/faqs/FAQ-dexedrine.php
http://www.add-adhd-help-center.com/dexedrine_medication.htm
http://www.dexedrineaddiction.com/dexedrine-effects.htm

Indications/Usage:
Dexedrine, a stimulant drug available in tablet or sustained-release capsule (Spansules) form, is prescribed to help treat the following two conditions:

* Narcolepsy (uncontrollable desire for sleep or sudden attacks of deep sleep)
* Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Dexedrine should only be used in conjunction with a total program including social, psychological, and educational guidance.)

Dexedrine tablets and Spansules are intended to be swallowed whole. Do not chew or crush the sustained-release form, or Spansule.

Dexedrine tablets and Spansules come as either short-acting (usually 4 hours) or long-acting (6-12 hours). The shorter-acting medications effects take place in 20 minutes, while the longer-acting ones may take up to an hour before the effects begin to take place.

If you are taking the tablet form, you may need up to 3 doses a day while you can only take the sustained-release capsules only once a day. Other dangerous ingestion practices include swallowing, snorting, smoking or injecting the dissolved product.

Never increase the amount or frequency without your doctor’s approval, or take this drug for any reason other than the one prescribed.
Sources:
http://www.drugabuse.gov/DrugPages/DrugsofAbuse.html
http://www.rxlist.com

Effects:
Amphetamines are a respiratory and cerebral stimulant, causing intense mental and physical stimulation. Resulting intoxication effects include increased heart rate, blood pressure, metabolism; feelings of exhilaration, energy, and increased mental alertness. Because Dexedrine increases wakefulness, often keeping users awake and alert for many hours, various amphetamines have been used by the military, pilots, truck drivers, and other workers to keep functioning past their normal limits.

Dextroamphetamine (dexamphetamine, d-amphetamine) sulfate is a sympathomimetic agent with indirect effects on adrenergic receptors. It has alpha-and beta-adrenergic activity. It has actions qualitatively similar to those of amphetamine sulfate but is approximately twice as potent. It has a marked stimulant effect on the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the cerebral cortex and the respiratory and vasomotor centers.
Sources:
http://www.rxmed.com/b.main/b2.pharmaceutical/b2.prescribe.htm
http://www.drugabuse.gov/DrugPages/DrugsofAbuse.htm
http://www.erowid.org

Side Effects:
Side effects associated with Dexedrine use are: addiction, agitation/irritability, insomnia, dry mouth, headache, nausea, anorexia, weight loss, hallucinations, liver irritation/toxicity, heart palpitations, tics, Tourette’s syndrome, sexual difficulties, tremors, behavior disturbances, and thought disorder, elevation of blood pressure, hives, over stimulation, restlessness, dizziness, euphoria, headache, exacerbation of motor skills, diarrhea, and constipation.

If you experience any of the following symptoms contact your doctor immediately: loss of coordination; delirium, panic, paranoia, impulsive behavior, aggressiveness, tolerance, addiction, and psychosis.

If you habitually take Dexedrine in doses higher than recommended, or if you take it over a long period of time, you may eventually become dependent on the drug and suffer from withdrawal symptoms if you abruptly stop it.

Excessive Dexedrine use may lead to hyperactivity, irritability, personality changes, schizophrenia-like thoughts and behavior, severe insomnia, and severe skin disease.

The potential health consequences of excessive use include rapid or irregular heart beat; reduced appetite, weight loss, heart failure, nervousness, and insomnia.
Sources:
http://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/rxdrugprofiles/drugs/dex1129.shtml
http://www.drugabuse.gov/DrugPages/DrugsofAbuse.html

Cautionary Notes:
As a stimulant, this drug has high abuse potential. After the stimulant effect wears off, a period of depression and fatigue typically follows. If this letdown is treated with another dose, this soon becomes a vicious circle.

If Dexedrine is taken with certain foods or drugs, the effects of either could be increased, decreased, or altered. It is especially important to check with your doctor before combining Dexedrine with the following:

Ammonium chloride
Chlorpromazine (Thorazine)
Fruit juices
Glutamic acid hydrochloride
Guanethidine
Haloperidol (Haldol)
Lithium carbonate (Eskalith)
Methenamine (Urised)
Reserpine
Sodium acid phosphate
Vitamin C (as ascorbic acid)
Antihistamines such as Benadryl
Blood pressure medications such as Catapres, Hytrin, and Minipress
Ethosuximide (Zarontin)
Veratrum alkaloids (found in certain blood pressure drugs)

The following substances can either increase the effects of Dexedrine or increase the medication’s effect when taken with Dexedrine:

Acetazolamide (Diamox)
MAO inhibitors such as Nardil and Parnate
Propoxyphene (Darvon)
Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)
Thiazide diuretics such as Diuril
Antidepressants such as Norpramin
Meperidine (Demerol)
Norepinephrine (Levophed)
Phenobarbital
Phenytoin (Dilantin)

Do Not Take Dexedrine if:

* you are sensitive to or have ever had an allergic reaction to it.
* you have taken a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAO inhibitor) such as the antidepressants Nardil and Parnate within the last 14 days. Dexedrine and MAO inhibitors may interact to cause a potentially life-threatening rise in blood pressure.

Do not take Dexedrine if you suffer from any of the following conditions:

* Agitation
* Cardiovascular disease
* Glaucoma
* Hardening of the arteries
* High blood pressure
* Overactive thyroid gland
* Substance abuse

Special warnings about Dexedrine:

* Dexedrine should be used with caution if you have mild high blood pressure.
* Dexedrine may affect your ability to perform potentially hazardous activities, such as operating machinery or driving a car.
* Do not take dextroamphetamine in the evening because it may cause insomnia.
* Dexedrine should not be used to combat fatigue or to replace rest.
Sources:
http://www.pdrhealth.com
http://www.rxmed.com/b.main/b2.pharmaceutical/b2.prescribe.html
http://www.drug-rehabs.org/faqs/FAQ-dexedrine.php

Abuse/Intoxication:
Chronic amphetamine intoxication may present with severe dermatoses, marked insomnia, irritability, hyperactivity, and personality changes. The most severe manifestation of chronic intoxication is psychosis, often clinically indistinguishable from schizophrenia.
Sources:
http://www.rxmed.com/b.main/b2.pharmaceutical/b2.prescribe.html
http://www.addictionwithdrawal.com

Dependency:
The possibility of tolerance and psychological dependence, particularly with excessive use, should be considered. If psychological dependence occurs, the medication should be discontinued. Abrupt cessation following prolonged high dosage administration may result in extreme fatigue and mental depression. A slower, physician supervised taper off the drug is highly recommended.

Signs of amphetamine dependency are:

· A strong desire or need to continue taking the medicine.
· A need to increase the dose to maintain the effects of the medicine.
· Withdrawal syndrome occurring after the medicine is stopped.

Stimulant drugs such as Dexedrine can quickly induce “tolerance.” Tolerance is a diminished response to a drug that develops over days, weeks, or months. It is the effect of cellular adaptive changes or enhanced drug metabolism from extended use of a medication.

If you abuse Dexedrine, you will likely find that the dose that had worked is suddenly inadequate, necessitating a higher dose. If you increase the dose, you will soon become tolerant to the higher dose, leading to a vicious circle and addiction.

It is important that your physician help you discontinue this medication in a careful and safe manner to avoid severe withdrawal.
Sources:
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/uspdi/202031.htm
http//:www.erowid.org

Withdrawal:
The length and severity of Dexedrine withdrawal is related to how much and how often the drug was used. Generally speaking, you may experience withdrawal symptoms if you stop taking it suddenly after several weeks of continuous use. The most pronounced withdrawal symptoms from Dexedrine are depression and extreme fatigue.

Consult with your doctor about stopping this medication gradually.

Obviously, the severity of withdrawal symptoms experienced is directly related to the amount of Dexedrine taken and the length of time over which it has been taken.

Withdrawal symptoms can occur when the use of amphetamines is stopped abruptly. Users may experience fatigue, craving, exhaustion, confusion, psychotic reaction, anxiety reactions, long, disturbed periods of sleep, irritability, intense hunger, and moderate to severe depression.
Sources:
http://www.addictionwithdrawal.com/dexedrine.htm
http://www.erowid.org
http://www.mayoclinic.com
http://my.webmd.com/content/drugs

Treatment:
Long term Dexedrine users should taper off the medication slowly under a knowledgeable physician’s care, or, enter a detox center for 24/7 treatment. With a moderate to severe addiction from relatively long term use, an in patient detox in a hospital or medical supervised setting is highly recommended for its multi- disciplinary approach. Dependence resulting from even a few weeks of regular use can usually be handled under a physician’s supervision with minimal discomfort. Treatment will ultimately depend on the degree of addiction.

However a person chooses to free themselves from the clutches of a drug, there is one constant each needs: Support. Narcotics Anonymous remains a successful choice for many addicts, with world-wide availability. The “information age” has produced numerous on line support forums, popular with many recovering addicts, useful to some addicts as their sole means of support and for others, as adjunct therapy. Drug addiction is treatable, with help out there for everyone.

Treatment Information:


treatment helpline
Self Help:

Treatment Centers:

More Information:

 

Demerol Abuse Treatment

 

Description:

drug abuse help

Demerol (C 15 H 21 NO 2 • M.W. 321.8 ) is the trade name for meperidine hydrocholoride, manufactured by Sanofi-Synthelabo, Inc. This medication is an opiate agonist, and a Schedule II controlled substance with a high abuse liability. Meperidine is completely synthetic and can be produced with dichlorodiethyl methylamine and benzyl cyanide.

Meperidine hydrochloride consists of ethyl 1-methyl-4-phenylisonipecotate hydrochloride, a white crystalline substance. It is readily soluble in water and has a neutral reaction and slightly bitter taste. On the street, Demerol is referred to as Demmie(s).
Sources:
http://www.ctclconsult.com/pdrdruginfo/html/73000480.htm
http://www.erowid.org

Background:
Demerol was introduced as a potent analgesic in the 1930s and was originally found to be useful for muscle spasms. With the discovery of its analgesic properties, it has since been used almost exclusively for the relief of moderate to severe pain.

Demerol produces similar, though not identical effects to morphine. Most notably, meperidine has a shorter duration of action and reduced antitussive and antidiarrheal actions. Several analogues of meperidine have been secretly produced with one memorable analogue with a neurotoxic by-product that produced irreversible Parkinsonism.
Sources:
http://www.drugfreeworkplace.com/drugsofabuse/synthetic.htm
http://www.lycaeum.org

Indications:
The principal actions of therapeutic value in Demerol are analgesia and sedation. Demerol is a narcotic analgesic with effects similar to morphine. Currently, Demerol is used for the relief of moderate to severe pain, most commonly in obstetrics and post-operative conditions. A unique characteristic to Demerol over its opiate family members is its ability to interrupt postoperative shivering and shaking chills induced by amphotericin B.
Sources:
http://www.rxmed.com/b.main/b2.pharmaceutical/b2.prescribe.html
http://www.demeroladdiction.com/demerol.htm

Usage:
Demerol comes in both tablet and liquid form for oral administration. It is usually is taken every 3-4 hours as needed. The drug can also be administered by injection into a large muscle or added to an intravenous fluid. Unlike most other opiates, Demerol has a short duration of action of only 2 to 3 hours. The standard dosing schedule results in serum levels below the concentration required for pain relief for most of the dosing interval.

Demerol is typically found as a single product, with few combination products. One frequently found combination product is acetaminophen in Demerol APAP.

When abused, Demerol is taken orally, injected and snorted. Never increase the amount or frequency of your dose without your doctor’s approval, or take this drug for any reason other than the one prescribed.
Source:
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/medmaster/a601155.html

Effects:
Despite being structurally distinct from morphine and related opiates, Demerol’s effects on opiate receptors are similar to those of morphine. Demerol alters the perception of pain in the spinal cord and CNS but has no effect on afferent nerve endings. Although the exact physiologic action of opiates is not known, stimulation of opiate receptors ultimately reduces neurotransmitter release.

The effects of Demerol are felt 10-15 minutes after ingestion and typically last anywhere from 2-4 hours. Demerol’s effects are very similar to morphine, with sedation, respiratory depression and euphoria less intense than that of morphine. While nausea and vomiting are fairly common with oral use, it is less likely when administered via injection. Users of Demerol usually experience euphoria because the medication triggers the brain’s pleasure centers while it blocks pain.
Sources:
http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/opiates/opiates_faq_opioids.shtml
http://www.demeroladdiction.com/demerol.htm

Side Effects:
The most frequent adverse reactions associated with Demerol use are: lightheadedness, dizziness, sedation, nausea, vomiting, and sweating. Less common side effects include: euphoria, dysphoria, weakness, headache, agitation, tremor, uncoordinated muscle movements, severe convulsions, transient hallucinations, disorientation, visual disturbances, dry mouth, constipation, biliary tract spasm, flushing of the face, tachycardia, bradycardia, palpitation, hypotension, syncope, urinary retention, pruritus, urticaria, and other skin rashes.

If you habitually take Demerol in doses higher than recommended, or if you take it over a long period of time, you may eventually become dependent on the drug and suffer from withdrawal symptoms if you abruptly stop it.
Source:
http://www.rxmed.com/b.main/b2.pharmaceutical/b2.prescribe.html

Cautionary Notes:
The major hazard of Demerol is respiratory depression. To a lesser degree, other risks are circulatory depression; respiratory arrest, shock, and cardiac arrest.

Do not take Demerol without Telling your Doctor:

· if you have hypersensitivity to Demerol.
· if you have used monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors during the previous 14 days.

More serious reactions include hyperexcitability, convulsions, tachycardia, hyperpyrexia, and hypertension. Although it is not known if other narcotics are free of the risk of such side effects, most reported reactions have occurred with Demerol.

It is especially important to check with your doctor before combining Demerol with the following:

· Other narcotic analgesics
· General anesthetics
· Phenothiazines
· Tranquilizers
· Sedative-hypnotics (including barbiturates)
· Tricyclic antidepressants
· Other CNS depressants, including alcohol. Respiratory depression, hypotension, and profound sedation or coma may result.

Special warnings about Demerol:

* Demerol should be used with caution in patients with atrial flutter and other supraventricular tachycardias.
* Demerol may aggravate preexisting convulsion disorders. Convulsions may occur in individuals without such history if the dosage is escalated above recommended levels.
* Demerol should be administered with extreme caution in the elderly or debilitated, and those with severe impairment of hepatic or renal function, hypothyroidism, Addison’s disease, and prostatic hypertrophy or urethral stricture.
* Demerol may interfere with the diagnosis and treatment of abdominal conditions.

Demerol overdose presents with bluish colored skin; cold and clammy skin; coma or extreme sleepiness; limp, weak muscles; low blood pressure; slow heartbeat; troubled or slowed breathing. In the case of overdose, immediate medical attention is required.
Sources:
http://www.ctclconsult.com/pdrdruginfo/html/73000480.htm
http://www.rxmed.com/b.main/b2.pharmaceutical/b2.prescribe.html
http://ruralnet.marshall.edu/pain/demerol.htm

Dependency:
Demerol can produce drug dependence akin to morphine, giving it a high abuse potential. It should be prescribed and administered with the same degree of caution appropriate to the use of morphine.

The possibility of tolerance and psychological dependence, particularly with excessive use, should be considered. If psychological dependence occurs, the medication should be discontinued. Abrupt cessation following prolonged high dosage administration may result in extreme fatigue and mental depression. A slower, physician supervised taper off the drug is highly recommended.

Signs of Demerol dependency:

· A strong desire or need to continue taking the medicine.
· A need to increase the dose to maintain the effects of the medicine.
· Withdrawal syndrome occurring after the medicine is stopped.

Opiate agonist drugs such as Demerol can quickly induce “tolerance.” Tolerance is a diminished response to a drug that develops over days, weeks, or months. It is the effect of cellular adaptive changes or enhanced drug metabolism from extended use of a medication.

If you abuse Demerol, you will likely find that the dose that has worked for you is suddenly inadequate, necessitating an increase. However, if you increase the dose, you will soon become tolerant to the higher dose, leading to the vicious circle of addiction. This is why it is so important that your physician help you monitor or discontinue this medication in a careful and safe manner to avoid severe withdrawal symptoms.
Sources:
http://www.rxmed.com
http://www.drug-rehabs.org/faqs/FAQ-demerol.php

Withdrawal:
The length and severity of Demerol withdrawal is directly related to how much and how often the drug was used. Generally speaking, you may experience withdrawal symptoms if you stop taking it suddenly after several weeks of continuous use.
You should always consult with your physician before stopping this medication.

Obviously, the severity of withdrawal symptoms experienced is directly related to the amount of Demerol taken and the length of time over which it has been taken. Generally speaking, “cold turkey” quitting of this medication is not recommended. If you use Demerol regularly and wish to stop taking this medication, consult first with your physician.

“Cold turkey” withdrawal symptoms can occur four to five hours after the last dose and usually lasts 7 to 10 days. Demerol withdrawal symptoms include but are not limited to: severe anxiety, insomnia, profuse sweating, muscle spasms, chills, shivering and tremors.
Source:
http://www.addictionwithdrawal.com/demerol.htm

Treatment:
Long term Demerol users should taper off the medication slowly under a knowledgeable physician’s care, or, enter a detox center for 24/7 treatment. With a moderate to severe addiction from relatively long term use, an in patient detox in a hospital or medical supervised setting is highly recommended for its multi- disciplinary approach. Dependence resulting from even a few weeks of regular use can usually be handled under a physician’s supervision with minimal discomfort. Treatment will ultimately depend on the degree of addiction.

However a person chooses to free themselves from the clutches of a drug, there is one constant each needs: Support. Narcotics Anonymous remains a successful choice for many addicts, with world-wide availability. The “information age” has produced numerous on line support forums, popular with many recovering addicts, useful to some addicts as their sole means of support and for others, as adjunct therapy. Drug addiction is treatable, with help out there for everyone.

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Crack Addiction and Abuse



Description:

drug abuse help

Crack cocaineCrack
cocaine is simply another form of cocaine base. The substance is so
named for the crackling sound that occurs when it is heated. Also
derived from powder cocaine, manufacturing crack cocaine involves
dissolving the powdered form of the drug in a solution of sodium
bicarbonate and water. The solution is heated and a solid substance
separates from the boiling mixture. This solid substance, crack cocaine,
is removed and allowed to dry. The crack cocaine is then broken or cut
into “rocks,” each typically weighing from one-tenth to
one-half a gram. One gram of pure powder cocaine will yield
approximately 0.89 grams of crack cocaine. Crack cocaine purchased on
the street though is not necessarily pure because many times additives
or fillers are used in the manufacturing process.

Source: http://www.mninter.net/~publish/Photo20b.htm

Background:
Home “freebasing” (producing pure cocaine with an
ethyl ether-based distillation process) became popular in the 1970s.
However, after a number of highly publicized accidents—including one
in which comedian Richard Pryor set himself on fire with the ether and
nearly died—the danger of working with ether in an already intoxicated
state became well known. In the mid-1980s it became known that
sodium-bicarbonate or ammonia could be substituted for ether for the
same result with much less hazard. Around this time, drug gangs began to
market the new product vigorously.

Source: http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/cocaine/cocaine.shtml

Usage:
Cocaine base (including coca paste, freebase cocaine, and
crack cocaine) is usually smoked in pipes constructed of glass bowls
using fine mesh screens to hold the drug. The user heats the side of the
bowl (usually with a lighter), and the heat causes the cocaine base to
vaporize. Alternatively, crack cocaine can be sprinkled in marijuana or
tobacco cigarettes and smoked. 

Source: http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/concern/cocaine.htm

Effects:
Crack has the same effects as other types of cocaine but much
more intense. The effects, however, are also more short lived, and once
the drug leaves the brain, the user experiences a “coke crash”
that includes depression, irritability, and fatigue, a greatly increased
risk of abnormal heart rhythms, high blood pressure, stroke and death.

Long-term consequences include: the coughing of black phlegm,
wheezing, lung trauma and bleeding, hoarseness, parched lips, tongue and
throat from inhaling hot fumes, mental deterioration, psychosis,
suicidal thoughts, social withdrawal and violent behavior.

Source: http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/cocaine/cocaine.shtml

Dependency:
Physical Dependence: Moderate
Psychological Dependence: Severe
Tolerance: Strong

Crack is a highly addictive substance, at least in the psychological
sense. While the physical withdrawal is relatively short-term, the
psychological cravings associated with withdrawal can last for months.
Crack withdrawal symptoms include intense cravings for the drug, hunger,
irritability, apathy, severe depression, paranoia, suicidal thoughts,
loss of sex drive, insomnia or excessive sleep. Often, more crack is
used to reduce these unpleasant effects. More than one user of cocaine
has said that using the drug was more important than food, sex, friends,
family, or jobs. Their main concern was how to ease the undesirable
effects of being without the drug.
Source: http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/cocaine/cocaine_effects.shtml

Treatment:
As noted above crack is a highly addictive substance.
Additionally, because of the nature of addiction, the newly recovering
user is often in a somewhat depleted physical state. Because of this,
the first step to treatment is usually a detoxification done in a
hospital or medically supervised setting. After detoxification,
residential treatment or twelve-step programs, such as the ones listed
below are generally recommended.


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