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Vicodin Addiction and Abuse Treatment



Description:

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Vicodin is the brand name for the popular painkiller, hydrocodone
bitartrate and acetaminophen. Hydrocodone bitartrate is an opioid
analgesic and antitussive, occurring as fine, white crystals or, as
a crystalline powder. The chemical name is:
4,5(alpha)epoxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan-6-one tartrate (1:1) hydrate (2:5).
Vicodin has the following structural formula:
C18H21NO3C4H6O6 – 2 1/2 H2O M.W. 494.50
Source: http://www.ctclconsult.com/pdrdruginfo/html/42201750.htm

In the U.S. there are over 200 products containing hydrocodone,
typically combined with acetaminophen (Vicodin, Lortab).
However, it is also combined with aspirin (Lortab ASA), ibuprofen
(Vicoprofen), and antihistamines (Hycomine). Both tablet and liquid
forms of hydrocodone are available (Tussionex). Other brand names
include Anexsia, CoGesic, Hydrocet, Hy-Phen, Lorcet, Maxidone, Norco,
Panacet, and Zydone. Street names for Vicodin include vikes and
hydros.

Hydrocodone is in Schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act.
Preparations containing hydrocodone in combination with other
non-narcotic medicinal ingredients are in Schedule III.
Source: http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugs_concern/hydrocodone/summary.htm

Background:
Hydrocodone dates back to the 1920’s when Knoll, a German
pharmaceutical company, believed hydrogenizing codeine could make it
less toxic, making it easier on the stomach. As its name implies,
hydrocodone is the codeine molecule with a hydrogen atom attached.
During this time in the U.S., a disturbing percentage of middle class
Americans were hooked on opium derivatives. The government, anxious
for a non-addictive painkiller, gave extensive funding to research
new compounds like hydrocodone.
Source: http://opioids.com/hydrocodone/vicodin.html

Indications:
Vicodin is a phenathrene-derivate opiate agonist, effective both as
an antitussive (anti-cough) agent, and as an opiate, an effective
analgesic for mild to moderate pain. Five mg of hydrocodone is
equivalent to 30 mg of codeine when administered orally. 15 mg
(1/4 gr) of hydrocodone is considered equivalent to 10 mg (1/6 gr)
of morphine. Hydrocodone is considered to be like morphine in all
respects.
Source: DEA: Drug Enforcement Administration

Usage:
The combination of acetaminophen and hydrocodone is available in
tablet or capsule form, as well as liquid, to be taken by mouth.
Generally, it is taken every 4-6 hours as needed (PRN). The usual
dose of Vicodin is 1 or 2 tablets, up to a maximum of 8 tablets per
day. The usual dose of Vicodin HP® is 1 tablet, up to a maximum of 6
tablets per day. For Vicodin ES®, the usual dose is 1 tablet, up to a
maximum of 5 tablets per day. Vicodin can be habit forming or
addictive, and it is imperative that patients take the medication
precisely as prescribed by their physician.

Do not increase the amount or frequency without your doctor’s
approval. Do not take this drug for any reason other than the one
prescribed.
Sources:
FDA: Food and Drug Administration
http://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/rxdrugprofiles/drugs/vic1480.shtml

Effects:
Vicodin is a semisynthetic narcotic analgesic and antitussive with
multiple actions qualitatively similar to those of codeine. Most of
these involve the central nervous system and smooth muscle. The
precise mechanism of action of hydrocodone and other opiates is not
known, although it is believed to relate to the existence of opiate
receptors in the central nervous system. In addition to analgesia,
narcotics may produce euphoria; drowsiness; lethargy; relaxation;
difficulty in concentrating; decreased physical activity in some users
and increased physical activity in others; mild anxiety or fear, and
pupillary constriction.
Source: http://www.ctclconsult.com/pdrdruginfo/html/42201750.htm

Typical side effects of Vicodin therapy include constipation, nausea,
vomiting, drowsiness, dizziness, lightheadedness, stomach pain, and
difficulty urinating.
Source: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/medmaster/a601006.html

Less common but potentially hazardous effects include respiratory
depression and mood changes. If you experience either, call your
doctor immediately. Elderly patients are particularly susceptible to
respiratory depression, particularly when Vicodin is used in
conjunction with other CNS depressant medications.
Source: http://www.rxlist.com/

Cautionary Notes:

  • Vicodin may make you drowsy. Do not drive a car, operate machinery, or perform any other potentially dangerous activities until you know how this drug affects you.
  • Narcotics such as Vicodin may interfere with the diagnosis and treatment of abdominal conditions.
  • Vicodin suppresses the cough reflex; therefore, be careful using Vicodin after an operation or if you have a lung disease.
  • High doses of Vicodin may produce slowed breathing; if you are sensitive to this drug, you are more likely to experience this effect.
  • Vicodin slows the nervous system. Alcohol can intensify this effect.

Use Vicodin with caution if:

  • You have a head injury. Narcotics tend to increase the pressure of the fluid within the skull.
  • If you have a severe liver or kidney disorder, an underactive thyroid gland, Addison’s disease (a disease of the adrenal glands), an enlarged prostate, or urethral stricture.
  • You are elderly and/or in a weakened condition.
  • Vicodin usage may obscure the diagnosis or clinical course in patients with acute abdominal conditions.

If Vicodin is taken with certain other drugs, the effects of either
may be increased, decreased, or altered. It is especially important
to check with your doctor before combining Vicodin with the following:

  • Valium and Librium
  • Tricyclic Antidepressants such as such as Elavil and Tofranil
  • Cimetidine
  • Antihistamines such as Tavist
  • MAO inhibitors such as Nardil and Parnate
  • Major tranquilizers such as Thorazine and Haldol
  • Other narcotic analgesics such as Demerol
  • Other central nervous system depressants such as Halcion and Restoril

Any medication taken in excess can have serious consequences. A
severe overdose of Vicodin can be fatal. If you suspect an overdose,
seek emergency medical treatment immediately.

Symptoms of a Vicodin overdose include:
Blood disorders, bluish tinge to skin, cold and clammy skin, extreme
sleepiness progressing to a state of unresponsiveness or coma,
general feeling of bodily discomfort, heart problems, heavy
perspiration, kidney problems, limp muscles, liver failure, low blood
pressure, nausea, slow heartbeat, troubled or slowed breathing, and
vomiting.
Source: http://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/rxdrugprofiles/drugs/vic1480.shtml

Dependency:
Psychic dependence, physical dependence, and tolerance may develop upon repeated administration of vicodin.
Psychic dependence is unlikely when vicodin is used for a short period of time.

Vicodin addiction can develop when continued use of the drug is needed to
avoid withdrawal symptoms. This problem only becomes relevant after
several (2 weeks to 2 months) of continued narcotic use.

Tolerance is when ever increasing doses are required to produce the
same degree of analgesia. Tolerance is initially manifested by a
decreased duration of analgesic effect, followed by decreases in the
intensity of analgesia. The rate of tolerance varies among patients.

Vicodin has an analgesic potency similar to or greater than that of
oral morphine. Generally, this drug is abused by oral rather than
intravenous administration.

When taken as directed, Vicodin can produce physical dependence in a
few weeks time.

According to the FDA, addiction is characterized by compulsive use,
use for non-medical purposes, and continued use despite harm or risk
of harm.

Patients no longer requiring Vicodin, should set a gradual taper
schedule to avoid acute withdrawal.

Withdrawal:
If a regular Vicodin user abruptly stops taking Vicodin, withdrawal
should begin within six to twelve hours. The intensity of withdrawal
depends on the degree of the addiction, and symptoms are usually not
life-threatening. Typically, Vicodin withdrawal symptoms may intensify
for twenty-four to seventy-two hours and then gradually decline over a
period of seven to fourteen days.

The symptoms of Vicodin withdrawal include but are not limited to:
restlessness, muscle pain, bone pain, insomnia, diarrhea, vomiting,
cold flashes, goose bumps, involuntary leg movements, watery eyes,
runny nose loss of appetite, irritability, panic, nausea, chills, and
sweating.
Source: http://www.addictionwithdrawal.com/vicodin.htm

Treatment:
Any person using Vicodin for more than several weeks should consult
their medical professional before stopping the drug. Generally
speaking, a gradual weaning off of the drug is optimal and less
traumatic to the user’s physical and emotional health. With a
moderate to severe addiction, an in patient detox in a hospital or
medically supervised setting is highly recommended for its
multi-disciplinary approach. The “information age” has
produced numerous on line support forums, popular with many recovering
addicts, useful to some addicts as their sole means of support and for
others, as adjunct therapy. Drug addiction is treatable, with help out
there for everyone.


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Valium Abuse Treatment

Description: Valium withdrawal, effects of Valium, Valium and alcohol, Valium abuse, Valium street names
Valium (C16H13ClN2O), manufactured by Roche, is a benzodiazepene derivative is in the anti-anxiety agent drug class. Chemically, diazepam is 7-chloro-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a colorless crystalline compound, insoluble in water and has a molecular weight of 284.74.

drug abuse help

Diazepam is the well known generic name for Valium which is in a class of drugs called benzodiazepenes. Other popular “benzos”includes Ativan, Alcelam, Alplax, Alpram, Alprax, Alprazolam Intensol, Alzolam, Anpress, Ansiopax, Pharnax Prinox Ralozam, Tafil, Trankimazin, Tricalma, Zacetin, Zanapam, Zenax, Zolarem, Zoldac, Zoldax and Zotran.

Street names for Valium include candy, downers, sleeping pills, and tranks.

Valium is in the anti-anxiety agent class and in Schedule IV of the DEA Controlled Substances Act.

Background:
Early in 2004, Valium celebrated its 30th anniversary. After three decades of both appropriate use and inappropriate abuse, the drug has stayed well mired in ongoing controversy. Much of the dispute around the use of Valium is because new prescriptions written in good conscience can turn out to be a problem later. Known generically as diazepam, the drug was widely prescribed in the 1960s and 70s, before its potential for serious addiction was realized.

Valium and chlordiazepoxide (Librium)were introduced in the early 1960s by Roche. These benzodiazepines were lauded as a safer alternative to barbiturates and meprobamate because they were thought to be non-habit forming and less lethal in overdose. Since the late 1960s there has been considerable debate over their side effects, potential for addiction, and abuse.

Indications:
Valium is prescribed for anxiety disorders and the short-term relief of the symptoms of anxiety. Valium is also used to relieve the symptoms of acute alcohol withdrawal; to relieve skeletal muscle spasm; to control involuntary movement of the hands (athetosis), to relax tight, aching muscles; and, with other medications, treat convulsive disorders such as epilepsy.

In acute alcohol withdrawal, Valium provides symptomatic relief of acute agitation, tremor, impending or acute delirium tremens and hallucinations.

Valium is also used as an adjunct prior to endoscopic procedures if anxiety or acute stress reactions are present.

As a long-acting benzodiazepine, Valium is often prescribed to patients withdrawing from shorter-acting benzos, such as Xanax.

Sources:
http://www.rxlst.com
http://www.pdrhealth.com

Usage:
Valium tablets are intended to be swallowed whole and are available in the following strengths: 0.2 mg, 5 mg, and 10 mg. Valium injectable emulsion is intended for intravenous use only and should never be administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously.

One inappropriate use of Valium is by snorting, which many users will try to minimize the unwanted effects of street drugs, such as cocaine.

Never increase the amount or frequency without your doctor’s approval, or take this drug for any reason other than the one prescribed.

Sources:
http://www.pdrhealth.com
http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/b1/benzo.asp

Effects:
The effects of Valium are felt within thirty minutes after oral injestion and one to five minutes after injection. This medicine works by increasing a chemical in your brain (gamma-aminobutyric acid or GABA) that acts as a sedative.

Valium is one of the most slowly eliminated benzodiazepines. It has a half-life of up to 200 hours, which means that the blood level for each dose falls by only one half in about 8.3 days. This makes it an ideal choice for withdrawing off the shorter acting benzodiazepines such as Xanax and Ativan.

This slow elimination of diazepam allows a smooth, gradual fall in blood level, allowing your body to adjust slowly to a decreasing concentration of the drug. With more rapidly eliminated benzodiazepines such as Ativan (with a half-life of 10-20 hours) the blood concentration drops rapidly and withdrawal symptoms can occur between doses, because your body has little time to adjust to low concentrations.

Benzodiazepines act at the level of the limbic, thalamic and hypothalamic regions of the CNS, producing any level of CNS depression including sedation, hypnosis, skeletal muscle relaxation, anticonvulsant activity, and coma. The action of these drugs is mediated through the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Central benzodiazepine receptors interact allosterically with GABA receptors, potentiating the effects of GABA and increasing the inhibition of the ascending reticular activating system. Benzodiazepines block the cortical and limbic arousal that occurs following stimulation of the reticular pathways.

Clinically, all benzodiazepines cause a dose-related central nervous system depressant activity varying from mild impairment of task performance to hypnosis.

Sources:
http://www.rxlist.com
http://www.erowid.org
http://www.drug-rehabs.org/faqs/FAQ-valium.php
http://www.benzo.org.uk/ashvtaper.htm

Side Effects:
While side effects cannot be anticipated, typical Valium side effects include: drowsiness, abdominal cramps, clumsiness, blurred vision, dry mouth, fatigue, light-headedness, heart palpitations, slurred speech, difficulty urinating, convulsions, hallucinations, amnesia, difficulty breathing, loss of muscle coordination, trembling, headache, and confusion.

If any of your side effects change in intensity, inform your doctor as soon as possible. Only your doctor can determine if it is safe for you to continue taking Valium.

If you experience any of the following symptoms they should be brought to the immediate attention of your physician.
Sources:
http://www.pdr.health.com
http://www.drug-rehabs.org/faqs/FAQ-valium.php

Cautionary Notes:
Valium intoxication symptoms include, but are not limited to: confusion, diminished reflexes, sleepiness, coma, and death. If overdosage or life-threatening withdrawal is even suspected, seek immediate medical attention.

Side effects due to rapid decrease in dose or abrupt withdrawal from Valium are
abdominal and muscle cramps, convulsions, sweating, tremors, and vomiting.

Fatalities have been reported in patients who have overdosed with a single benzodiazepine, such as Valium, and alcohol, although the blood alcohol levels in some of these patients was lower than those usually associated with alcohol-induced fatality. In other words, alcohol and benzodiazepines is a potentially fatal combination. Again, immediate medical attention is required if this ingestion of this combination is suspected.

Combining Valium with certain other drugs can increase, decrease, or alter its effects. It is especially important to check with your doctor before combining Valium with:

*Antiseizure drugs such as Dilantin

*Antidepressant drugs such as Elavil and Prozac

*Barbiturates such as phenobarbital

*Cimetidine (Tagamet)

*Digoxin (Lanoxin)

*Disulfiram (Antabuse)

*Fluoxetine (Prozac)

*Isoniazid (Rifamate)

*Levodopa (Larodopa, Sinemet)

*Major tranquilizers such as Mellaril and Thorazine

*MAO inhibitors (antidepressant drugs such as Nardil)

*Narcotics such as Percocet

*Omeprazole (Prilosec)

*Oral contraceptives

*Propoxyphene (Darvon)

*Ranitidine (Zantac)

*Rifampin (Rifadin)

Other Medical Problems:

The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of benzodiazepines. If you have any of the following conditions, make sure you discuss your use of Valium with your physician. Examples include:

* Alcohol or Drug abuse or dependence (or history of)
* Brain disease – Benzodiazepine use may increase CNS depression and other side effects

* Emphysema, asthma, bronchitis, or other chronic lung disease

* Glaucoma

* Hyperactivity

* Mental depression

* Mental illness (severe)

* Myasthenia gravis

* Porphyria

* Sleep apnea (temporary stopping of breathing during sleep)

* Epilepsy or history of seizures

* Kidney or liver disease

Sources:
http://www.rxlist.com
http://www.drugs.com
http://www.pdrhealth.com

Dependency and Withdrawal:
Valium depresses the nervous system much like alcohol and is abused by all segments of society.
Valium is both physically and psychologically addicting and as is considered one of the toughest addictions to break. With chronic use, its abuse potential is high. Withdrawal symptoms can be seen after only 2 or 3 days of repeated use.

Tolerance to Valium builds quickly and is the effect of cellular adaptive changes or enhanced drug metabolism. This tolerance develops over days, weeks, or months is a diminished response associated with chronic use of this drug.

All benzodiazepines, even when used as recommended, may produce emotional and/or physical dependence. Valium has the potential to cause severe emotional and physical dependence in some patients and these individuals may find it exceedingly difficult to stop using. It is important that your physician help you discontinue this medication in a careful and safe manner to avoid severe withdrawal.

To abruptly stop Valium after an extended period of use is extremely dangerous and can cause seizures and sometimes death. Discontinuation of the medication must include a physician supervised gradual taper schedule and/or adjunct medications to minimize acute withdrawal.

Essentially, withdrawal symptoms from Valium are like the mirror of its therapeutic effects. Valium withdrawal can produce especially severe withdrawal symptoms similar to those in alcohol and barbiturate withdrawal, including jittery, shaky feelings and any of the following: rapid heartbeat, tremor, insomnia, sweating, irritability, anxiety, blurred vision, decreased concentration, decreased mental clarity, diarrhea, heightened awareness of noise or bright lights, impaired sense of smell, loss of appetite, loss of weight, muscle cramps, seizures, tingling sensation, and agitation. In more extreme cases, typically associated with sudden cessation of the drug, users may experience convulsions, tremor, abdominal and muscle cramps, vomiting and sweating. After extended abuse, abrupt discontinuation should be avoided and a gradual dosage tapering schedule carefully followed.

Obviously, the severity of withdrawal symptoms is directly related to the amount of the drug taken and the length of time over which it has been taken.

Sources:
http://www.pdrhealth
http://www.addictionwithdrawal.com.htm

Treatment:
Long term Valium users must taper down slowly under a knowledgeable physician’s care, or enter a detox center for 24/7 treatment. With a moderate to severe addiction from relatively long term use, an in patient detox in a hospital or medical supervised setting is highly recommended for its multi- disciplinary approach.

However a person chooses to free themselves from the clutches of a drug, there is one constant each needs: Support. Narcotics Anonymous remains a successful choice for many addicts, with world-wide availability. The “information age” has produced numerous on line support forums, popular with many recovering addicts, useful to some addicts as their sole means of support and for others, as adjunct therapy. Drug addiction is treatable, with help out there for everyone.

Treatment Information: Valium Addiction Treatment – Valium abuse can be treated successfully


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Sources:
DEA: Drug Enforcement Agency
http://www.rxlist.com
http://www.erowid.org
http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/b1/benzo.asp
http://www.fda.gov
http://www.erowid.org

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Tobacco Addiction and Abuse Treatment



Description:

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Cigarettes
Tobacco is closely related to garden vegetables, flowers, weeds, and poisonous
herbs. Common plants such as potatoes, tomatoes, eggplant, petunias,
jimson wood, ground cherries, and nightshade, as well as tobacco, are of
the family of plants called Solanaceae. The genus (sub-group of
Solanaceae) Nicotiana contains about 100 species, only two of which have
been extensively cultivated for use in tobacco products. Of those two,
Nicotiana tabacam, is the type of tobacco used today in smoking and
chewing tobacco and it is the predominant variety of crop tobacco. The
active ingredient, and the addictive substance, in tobacco of any form
is nicotine(C10H14N2).
Source: http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/archives/exhibits/tobacco

Background:
Experts believe that, as early as 6000 B.C., the tobacco
plant, as we know it today, began growing in the Americas. Throughout
the 16th and 17th centuries tobacco proliferated
throughout Europe and Asia. Although the negative health effects of
tobacco were documented as early as 1600, it was not until the 1950s
that the United States began regulating tobacco advertising and sales.
Only recently has there been a widespread realization of the dangers of
long-term tobacco use.
Source: http://www.tobacco.org

Usage:
Tobacco is available in a number of forms including snuff, chewing
tobacco, pipe tobacco, cigars and cigarettes. Tobacco is either chewed,
in the case of snuff and chewing tobacco, or smoked in a pipe, cigar or
cigarette form.

Effects:
Nicotine is a stimulant and smokers feel that tobacco helps relieve
boredom and tiredness and also helps reduce stress and anxiety. The
effects are almost immediate but fade quickly, which encourages
continual use. Some people may experience nausea and dizziness when they
inhale tobacco smoke for the first few times.

Tobacco use has been conclusively linked to health problems
including, but not limited to, heart disease, stroke, emphysema, blood
clots, cancer, bronchitis, poor circulation and ulcers.

Tobacco use remains the leading preventable cause of death in the
United States, causing more than 400,000 deaths each year and resulting
in an annual cost of more than $50 billion in direct medical costs. Each
year, smoking kills more people than AIDS, alcohol abuse, drug abuse,
car crashes, murders, suicides, and fires combined.
Source: Center for Disease Control

Dependency:
Physical Dependence: Moderate to severe
Psychological Dependence: Moderate
Tolerance: Moderate to strong

Treatment:
Many more treatment facilities are beginning to institute
short-term, or weekend, smoking-cessation programs. Contact the centers
listed below for information on such programs.


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Peyote Abuse Treatment



Description:

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Peyote
Peyote (Lophophora williamsii) is native to the Chihuahan Desert,
including portions of the Rio Grande Valley in Southern Texas, and as
far south as the state of San Luis Potosi in Mexico. A small, round
cactus with fuzzy tufts instead of sharp spines, it rarely rises more
than an inch or so above the soil surface. The largest part of the
cactus is underground in the long, carrot-like root. The above ground
portion, known as the “button”, contains the psychoactive
ingredient. It is cut and can be consumed fresh or dried.
Mescaline is the psychoactive ingredient in Peyote cactus.

Background:
Peyote has a long history of medicinal and sacramental use, generally
thought to be about 7000 years. Trade in, and knowledge of, the
psychoactive cactus was well established prior to the European conquest
of Mexico. At that time, Spanish Inquisitors declared its use to be a
crime against God. Native users, believing that the cactus would provide
them with divine guidance and inspiration, became targets of ruthless
evangelism. Peyote has been an item of commerce for a very long time.
Most recently it has been commercially harvested in the state of Texas,
though its sale is now restricted by law to the approximately 255,000
members of the Native American Church (NAC).
Source: http://www.erowid.org/plants/peyote/peyote.shtml

Usage:
Generally, from 4-20 buttons, are eaten or made into tea. 500 mg is
considered a standard hallucinogenic dose of mescaline.
Source: http://www.mescaline.com/exp/index.htm

Effects:
The effects of Peyote have been described as very dream-like, drifting,
almost a delirium-type state during the first couple of hours. The
sensation is similar to LSD but less edgy. While hallucinations, both
auditory and visual, occur, many users say that a peyote high lends
itself more to inner reflection and contemplation. Much depends on the
potency of the peyote and the blend of mescaline and the fifty some odd
alkaloids contained in cactus.
Source: http://www.mescaline.com/exp/index.htm

Dependency:
Physical Dependence: None
Psychological Dependence: Moderate
Tolerance: Mild
Source: The Merck Manual: Sixteenth Edition, published 1992

Treatment:
Mescaline is a mild to moderately habit-forming substance with no
physical addiction. It should be noted, though, that virtually any
substance can be addictive, to a greater or lesser degree, depending on
the user. It is a generally accepted notion among treatment
professionals that the addiction, whether physical or psychological, is
the problem, not the specific substance. Below are some treatment
programs that may be useful for mescaline users as well as others
seeking help with an addiction:


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More Information:

Oxycontin Abuse Treatment



Description:

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Oxycodone hydrochloride (C18 H21 NO4 – HCl MW 351.83) is the chemical
structural formula for OxyContin, manufactured by Purdue Pharma, L.P.
Tablets are an opioid analgesic, and a Schedule II controlled substance
with an abuse liability similar to morphine. OxyContin tablets are supplied
in 10mg, 20 mg, 40 mg, and 80 mg tablet strengths for oral administration.
The tablet strengths indicate the amount of oxycodone per tablet as
hydrochloride salt.

OxyContin is a trade name for the drug oxycodone hydrochloride, or
oxycodone HCL. Street names for Oxycodone include Oxy, O.C., Hillbilly
heroin, Oxycotton and Killer.

Oxycodone is a white, odorless crystalline powder derived from the
opium alkaloid, thebaine. Inactive ingredients include ammonio
methacrylate copolymer, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, lactose,
magnesium stearate, povidone, red iron oxide (20 mg strength tablet
only), stearyl alcohol, talc, titanium dioxide, triacetin, yellow
iron oxide (40 mg strength tablet only) , yellow iron oxide with
FD&C blue No. 2 (80 mg strength tablet only).

Background:
It is believed that ancient civilizations in Egypt and Greece used
opium for its euphoric effects. During the 19th century, laudanum
(opium dissolved in alcohol) and other opium products were used in
Great Britain and America to treat various ailments, from teething
soreness in babies to fever and cough in children and adults.

The milky liquid from the opium poppy plant seed pods is extracted
and dried to form opium powder. Various alkaloids from this powder
can be isolated to form opioids such as morphine, codeine and
oxycodone. The alkaloid in oxycodone is thebaine.

OxyContin was introduced in the United States in December of 1995,
and Canada in July 1996, although oxycodone products have been
illicitly abused for the past 30 years.
Sources:
http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/drugfact/oxycontin
http://www.howstuffworks.com

Indications:
OxyContin tablets are a controlled-release oral formulation of
oxycodone hydrochloride indicated for the management of chronic,
and moderate to severe pain when a continuous around-the-clock
analgesic is needed. When used properly, OxyContin can provide
pain relief for up to 12 hours. OxyContin is not intended as a
prn analgesic. (Not to be taken as needed.)
Sources:
FDA: Food and Drug Administration
DEA: Drug Enforcement Administration

Usage:
While OxyContin tablets are only to be administered by swallowing the
tablets whole, a number of other dangerous and potentially fatal
means of administration are often employed by those seeking to
increase the euphoria which can lead to a dangerous oxycontin addiction, by bypassing the time-release control mechanism.
According to many experts, this hazardous and abusive means of ingestion
creates a euphoric rush similar to heroin.

These potentially lethal ingestion practices include snorting,
crushing, chewing, or injecting the dissolved product. This results
in an uncontrolled delivery of the opioid and poses significant risks
to the abuser that could result in overdose and death.
Source: FDA: Food and Drug Administration

Effects:
Oxycodone works by stimulating certain opioid receptors located
throughout the central nervous system, in the brain and along the
spinal cord. When the oxycodone binds to the opioid receptors, a
variety of physiologic responses can occur, including pain relief,
relaxation, slowed breathing, and euphoria.

Typical side effects of opioid therapy include constipation,
somnolence, nausea, vomiting, pruritus, (itching) headache, dry mouth,
sweating and asthenia (weakness).

Less common but potentially hazardous effects include respiratory
depression, altered mental state and postural hypotension. Elderly
patients are particularly susceptible to respiratory depression,
particularly when oxycodone is used in conjunction with other CNS
depressant medications. Oxycodone can cause severe hypotension and
is risky for individuals whose ability to maintain blood pressure has
been compromised.

All effects are typical opioid side effects. Such effects are dose
dependent, related to a patient’s level of opioid tolerance, and
specific to an individual’s host factors.
Sources:
http://www.fda.gov
http://www.howstuffworks.com
http://www.rxlist.com

Cautionary Notes:
Oxycodone should only be used with extreme caution in the following
conditions: acute alcoholism; Addison’s Disease; CNS depression or
coma; delirium tremens; debiliated patients; kyphosocoliosis
associated with respiratory depression; myxedema or hypothyroidism;
prostatic hypertrophy or urethral stricture; severe impairment or
hepatic, pulmonary or renal function; and toxic psychosis.

Oxycodone usage may obscure the diagnosis or clinical course in
patients with acute abdominal conditions.

Oxycodone may aggravate convulsive disorders, and all opiods may
induce or aggravate seizures.

The use of oxycodone with alcohol, other opioids, or illicit drugs
will have an additive effect, causing central nervous system
depression.

Oxycodone addiction is much like other legal or illicit opioid agonists.
This medication has become widely sought by drug abusers and people
with a history of addiction.

Acute overdosage presents with respiratory depression, somnolence
leading to stupor or coma, skeletal muscle flaccidity, cold and
clammy skin, constricted pupils, bradycardia (unusually slow heart
action), hypotension and death. Oxycodone overdosage requires immediate medical attention.
Sources:
http://www.fda.gov
http://www.health.org/govpubs/ms726/

For patients no longer requiring oxycodone, cessation of therapy
should include a gradual taper schedule to avoid acute withdrawal in
the physically dependent patient.

Dependency:
When taken as directed, oxycodone will produce physical dependence in
a few weeks time. However, the real danger is for users who take the
drug for a euphoric rush, or by ingesting by ANY other means than
swallowing the tablet whole.

According to the FDA, addiction is characterized by compulsive use,
use for non-medical purposes, and continued use despite harm or risk
of harm.

Sudden cessation of OxyContin after even a few weeks can cause a
severe withdrawal syndrome.

OxyContin addiction is commensurate with whether an individual takes
the medication as directed. For those that do, physical and
emotional dependence is still a very real risk. For those ingesting
the drug without medical supervision, the dependency risks are
extremely high.

Tolerance to this class of drug builds quickly with again, increased
risk to those taking OxyContin by chewing, snorting, or injecting for
the “rush”.

Withdrawal:
Hydrocodone withdrawal is often characterized by over-activity of the
physiologic functions that were suppressed by the drug and/or
depression of the functions that were stimulated by the drug.
Opioids often cause sleepiness, calmness, and constipation, so opioid
withdrawal often includes insomnia, anxiety, and diarrhea. Other
withdrawal symptoms include restlessness, sweating, chills, yawning,
muscle pain, teariness, and runny nose. Other symptoms include:
irritability, joint pain, backache, weakness, abdominal cramps,
insomnia, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, and increased blood pressure,
respiratory rate, or heart rate.

Treatment:
Any person using OxyContin for more than several weeks should consult
with a medical professional before stopping the drug. Generally
speaking, a gradual weaning off of the drug is optimal and less
traumatic to the user’s physical and emotional health. With a moderate
to severe addiction, an in patient detox in a hospital or medical
supervised setting is highly recommended for its multi- disciplinary
approach. While drug addiction is a treatable disease, relapse is
common and professional help is highly recommended.

Treatment Information:


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Mushroom Addiction Treatment



Description:

drug abuse help

Mushrooms
In the United States, hallucinogenic mushrooms are one of the most
frequently used hallucinogens after LSD.

Although many species of mushrooms have psychoactive properties,
Psilocybe Cubensis (Libery Cap) mushrooms are the most commonly used
species among recreational and religious users. Other lesser-used
species are Psilocybe Mexicana, Psilocybe Hoogshagenii and Psilocybe
Zapotecorum.  Nearly all of the psychoactive mushrooms are small,
brown or tan mushrooms and look very similar to any number of
non-psychoactive, inedible, or poisonous mushrooms growing in the wild.
This makes them somewhat difficult, and potentially hazardous, to
identify. On the street, these mushrooms are known as Mushrooms, Magic
Mushrooms, Mushies, Shrooms, Sillies, Boomers Caps or Fungus.

Background:
Native Americans in Central and South America have used Psilocybe
mushrooms for thousands of years. The first European record of their use
was in the 16th century writings of a Spanish priest who wrote about the
Aztec’s use of both mushrooms and peyote. In 1957, ethnobotanist R.
Gordon Wasson became the first in modern times
to document and publish a description of his own experience (Life
Magazine). In 1968 possession of psilocybin mushrooms was made illegal
in the United States.
Source: http://www.erowid.org/plants/mushrooms/mushrooms_basics.shtml

Usage:
The average dose of mushrooms is 1-5 grams. They are taken orally or, in
rare occurrences, smoked. Because of the less than pleasant taste, they
are often mixed with other foods or drinks. Street prices run $5-20 per
gram, $100 – $300 per ounce.

Effects:
In general, the hallucinogenic experience is very similar to an LSD
experience, but less intense and of shorter duration. The effects of
these mushrooms can vary considerably depending on the species, but for
Psilocybe mushrooms the user will typically experience effects including
feelings of being out of one’s body (ego loss), colorful hallucinations,
distortion in spatial perception, time, and color shift. At higher does,
users may experience lightheadedness, numbnesss of the tongue, lips or
mouth, shivering or sweating, nausea and/or vomiting, and anxiety.

As with LSD, depending on the general mood of the user, bad trips can
occur.

Dependency:
Physical Dependence: None
Psychological Dependence: Moderate
Tolerance: Moderate
Source: The Merck Manual: Sixteenth
Edition, published 1992

Treatment:
Psilocybin is a mild to moderately habit-forming substance with no
physical addiction. It should be noted, though, that virtually any
substance can be addictive, to a greater or lesser degree, depending on
the user. It is a generally accepted notion among treatment
professionals that the addiction, whether physical or psychological, is
the problem, not the specific substance. Below are some treatment
programs that may be useful for psilocybin users as well as others
seeking help with an addiction:


treatment helpline

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Meth Addiction and Abuse Treatment



Description:

drug abuse help

Meth
Methamphetamine (C10H15N), also known as
“speed,” “meth,” “crystal,”
“crank” or “ice,” is a chemical widely known for its
stimulant properties on the human body. It is a central nervous system
stimulant from the amphetamine family. Like cocaine, it produces
alertness, and elation, along with a variety of adverse reactions. The
effects of methamphetamine, however, are much longer lasting then the
effects of cocaine, yet the cost is roughly the same. For this reason,
methamphetamine is sometimes called the “poor man’s cocaine.”
It is frequently confused with other drugs that share similar symptoms,
including amphetamine, 4-methyl-aminorex(ice), ephedrine, caffeine, and
other chemicals, both legal and illegal. The word speed, in street
terms, often refers to any one of these substances.
Source: http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/meth/meth.shtml

Background:
First Synthesized in 1887, methamphetamine is made from the
drug ephedrine, an organic substance used as a medicine in China for
hundreds of years. In the 1930s it was sold in the U.S. as a nasal spray
for treatment of inflammation of nasal passages (ephedrine still is sold
for this purpose) and as treatment for narcolepsy (sudden sleep
disorder). During WWII, it was used by both sides to improve soldiers’
performance. This became a major problem in Japan after World War II as
they experienced the first known epidemic of methamphetamine abuse. In
1970, the Controlled Substances Act regulated the production of
methamphetamine.

Today much of the methamphetamine available on the street is illicit
and produced in clandestine laboratories in the United States and more
recently, Mexico. Because of this, questions always linger about the
quality of the drug.
Source: http://www.kci.org/meth_info/faq_meth.htm

Usage:
Methamphetmine can be smoked, snorted, injected, or taken orally, and
its appearance varies depending on how it is used. Typically, it is a
white, odorless, bitter-tasting powder that easily dissolves in water.
Because much of the methamphetamine in the U.S. is homemade, its color
and appearance can vary according to the skill of the chemist and the
raw materials used.
Source: http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/concern/amphetamines.html

Effects:
Methamphetamine’s effects include euphoria,
hyper-excitability, extreme nervousness, accelerated heartbeat,
sweating, dizziness, restlessness, insomnia, tooth grinding, incessant
talking, and other effects. Other effects include elevated blood
pressure, heart rate, and other general symptoms of increased nervous
activity, hyperthermia (extreme rise in body temperature as high as 108
degrees), and convulsions. Hyperthermia and convulsions sometimes can
result in death.

Users of large amount of methamphetamines over a long period of time
can develop an amphetamine psychosis, which is a mental disorder similar
to paranoid schizophrenia. The symptoms of this psychosis are
hallucinations, delusions, and extreme paranoia.
Source: http://www.lec.org/DrugSearch/Documents/Meth.html

Dependency:
Physical Dependence: moderate
Psychological Dependence: moderate to severe
Tolerance: strong

Withdrawal symptoms can occur when use of any amphetamines is stopped
abruptly. Users may experience fatigue; long, disturbed periods of
sleep; irritability; intense hunger, and moderate to severe depression.
The length and severity of the depression is related to the quantity
used and the frequency of use.
Source: http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/meth/meth.shtml

Treatment:
Methamphetamine is a highly addictive drug and assistance is often
needed to recover from this addiction. Below are some treatment programs
that may be useful for methamphetamine users as well as others:


treatment helpline

More Information:

Meth Chemistry Resources:
Due to the increased popularity of “home brewed” meth, it’s important for persons providing treatment for meth addiction, persons using meth, and the public at-large, to be aware of the basic chemistry and related hazards of methamphetamines; meth labs are frequently found in homes and other locations where one wouldn’t such activity to take place and thus it’s important to be aware.

LSD Abuse Treatment



Description:

drug abuse help

LSD
Lysergic acid diethylamide, better known as LSD, is probably the most
widely known and most commonly used hallucinogen in the U.S. On the
street, LSD is known as Acid, Cid, Trips, L, Doses, Vitamin L or Paper.
Probably the best known and most widely used of the psychedelics, LSD in
its base form, is a liquid. By the time it reaches the street, however,
it can take a variety of forms. The liquid is most often applied to
small squares of blotter paper usually decorated with artwork or designs
and perforated. Other forms include pills, gelatin shapes (known as
window pane), liquid and sugar cubes.

Background:
Albert Hofmann discovered LSD in 1938 in Basel, Switzerland while
researching blood stimulants. No research on LSD was conducted until
five years later when Hofmann accidentally ingested LSD for the first
time. Between 1943 and 1960, hundreds of academic papers were written on
LSD. Because of its structural similarity to a chemical present in the
brain and the similarity of its effects to certain aspects of psychosis,
LSD was, for a time, used as a research tool to study mental illness.
During the 1950s, the U.S. government conducted experiments on unwitting
participants in an operation code-named Project MK-Ultra.

The drug is believed to have first appeared on the
street in the U.S. in 1963 and by 1966 the mainstream media began
recognizing the widespread use of the LSD. It was also in 1966 that LSD
was made illegal in California, in 1967 the Federal government banned
the substance. Use of the drug waned somewhat after its initial
popularity in the 1960s, but LSD made a comeback in the 1990s.
Sources:
http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/lsd/lsd.shtml
http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/concern/lsd.htm

Usage:
A typical dose of LSD is between 50 and 150 micrograms. A single dose of
most blotter paper contains somewhere in this range, though this varies
depending on the source and there is no way for the average user to
determine the strength of a piece of blotter other than by word of
mouth. A single drop of liquid can contain a huge amount of LSD,
depending on how it was made, but is generally diluted so that one drop
is a single medium dose.

Sold by the single dose, blotter LSD sells for $2 to $25. Captive
markets such as raves generally produce high prices while in larger
cities and between friends, it is often sold at cheaper prices. Less
common forms of LSD sell for somewhat higher prices ($8-10 for a single
hit), and as with most substances, the price is lower when bought in
bulk. Sheets of 100 hits (blotter) generally range from $1-$2 per hit.
Source: http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/lsd/lsd.shtml

Effects:
An LSD trip generally lasts from 6-12 hours, depending on the dose. The
effects will begin to be felt 20-30 minutes after ingestion and the
“peak” of the trip occurs about 2 hours after taking the drug.
At the onset of an LSD experience, there is a vague feeling of
anticipation and increased energy as well as an undefined feeling that
something is different.

As the effects gain strength, a general change in sensory perception
occurs. This can include non-specific mental and physical stimulation,
pupil dilation, closed and open eye patterning and hallucinations,
changed thought patterns, feelings of insight, confusion, extreme mental
clarity, paranoia and quickly changing emotions. LSD is powerful
psychoactive and recent experiences, especially dramatic ones, can have
a substantial effect on a trip. Physically, or psychologically
unsettling events in the days before an LSD trip can blossom into
distress and trauma during a trip.
Source: http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/lsd/lsd_basics.shtml

Dependency:
Physical Dependence: None
Psychological Dependence: Moderate
Tolerance: Moderate
Source: The Merck Manual: Sixteenth
Edition, published 1992

Treatment:
LSD is a mild to moderately habit-forming substance with no physical
addiction. It should be noted, though, that virtually any substance can
be addictive, to a greater or lesser degree, depending on the user. It
is a generally accepted notion among treatment professionals that the
addiction, whether physical or psychological, is the problem, not the
specific substance. Below are some treatment programs that may be useful
for LSD users as well as others:


treatment helpline


Treatment links:

More Information:

Ketamine Abuse Treatment



Description:

drug abuse help

Ketamine (C13H16 ClNO M.W. 237.73) hydrochloride is a short-acting dissociative anesthetic with hallucinogenic and painkilling qualities. Ketamine is occasionally administered to people as a general anesthetic but, more commonly it is used by vets for pet surgery. Popular in club and rave culture, street “K” is most often diverted in liquid form from vets’ offices or medical suppliers for illegal, recreational use.

Chemically related to PCP or “Angel Dust”, the most common trade names for Ketamine are Ketalar and Ketaset. Ketamine’s street names include cat Valiums K, Special K, and Vitamin K.

Ketamine is currently a DEA Schedule III drug.
Sources:
http://www.drugabuse.gov/DrugPages/DrugsofAbuse.html
http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/ketamine/ketamine_chemistry.shtml
http://www.drug-rehabs.org/faqs/FAQ-ketamine.php

Background:
In 1962, while searching for PCP anesthetic replacements, Ketamine was first synthesized at Parke Davis Labs. Three years later, the drug was found to be useful as an anesthetic, primarily for veterinary use because its respiratory depression was far less than most other anesthetics. By the 1970’s patients began to report hallucinations while under its influence and in 1978, John Lilly’s book “The Scientist” enhanced Ketamine’s popularity. In the rave and club scene, Ketamine abuse waltzes beside gamma hydroxy butyrate (GHB) and MDMA (Ecstasy). All three are very popular with this party crowd and in the mid nineties, the DEA added Ketamine to its “emerging drugs list”. A few years later the media and legislators lumped it together with GHB as a “date rape drug”, and a “club drug”. In 1999 the DEA emergency scheduled Ketamine. Today, Ketamine is used for short-term surgical procedures in both animals and humans and the drug is legally sold only to hospitals and physicians.

Sources:
http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/ketamine/ketamine_basics.shtml
http://www.drug-rehabs.org/faqs/FAQ-ketamine.php

Usage:
Ketamine is prepared by evaporating the liquid from the legitimate prescribed injectable product and then grinding the residue into a powder. The liquid is dried by warming the liquid on low heat. In liquid form it is injected intramuscularly.

Alternatively, Ketamine is snorted or swallowed as a powder and sometimes smoked.
Sources:
http://www.drugabuse.gov/DrugPages/DrugsofAbuse.html
http://www.drug-rehabs.org/faqs/FAQ-ketamine.php

Effects:
Ketamine has become a staple at ‘rave’ parties, producing a dose-related progression of effects from a state of dreamy intoxication to delirium. Other effects include an inability to move, feel pain or remember what happened while under the drug’s influence.

Ketamine’s benefit as an anesthetic is its ability to block nerve paths without depressing respiratory and circulatory functions. Some of Ketamine’s primary effects include increased heart rate and blood pressure, impaired motor function, memory loss, numbness, nausea and vomiting.

Ketamine “trips” have been described as experiencing alternate planes of existence, past and future revelations, and being “at one with the universe”. Users often experience communication difficulties and an inability to see or hear others in the same room.
Sources:
http://www.drugabuse.gov/DrugPages/DrugsofAbuse.html
http://www.drug-rehabs.org/faqs/FAQ-ketamine.php
http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/ketamine/ketamine_faq.shtml#11

Side Effects:
Ketamine can produce profound physical and mental problems including delirium, amnesia, impaired motor function and potentially fatal respiratory problems. Two psychological problems associated with regular use Ketamine are paranoia and egocentrism.

Other effects include panic, rage and paranoia. Some user’s experience a feeling of paralysis, slurring, euphoria, confusion, nausea and vomiting. Ketamine users literally “feel no pain”, increasing the likelihood of causing injury or harm to themselves without even knowing it. Users are often unaware they are hallucinating and some enter the “K Hole” – purportedly similar to a “near death” experience.
Source:
http://www.drug-rehabs.org/faqs/FAQ-ketamine.php

Cautionary Notes:
In the rave and club scene these days, substances sold as Ketamine or Special K are often mixed with other drugs, including heroin, coke, and ecstasy. Any such drugs combined with Ketamine are a potentially lethal combination with minimal psychedelic value.

High doses of Ketamine may induce delirium, depression, respiratory depression and arrest. As an anesthetic, a Ketamine overdose will knock you out just as if you had received a general anesthetic in an operating room. Continuous use in large doses can induce unconsciousness and cardiac arrest, leading to death. If an overdose is suspected, seek IMMEDIATE medical attention.

Ketamine should never be combined with central nervous system depressants, particularly alcohol, barbiturates, and benzodiazepenes such as Valium.

Other Precautions:

*Do Not Operate Heavy Machinery.

*Do Not Drive.

*Do Not Swim and avoid bodies of water. At least one Ketamine associated death has been recorded from a user who drowned while taking a bath.

Sources:
http://www.drug-rehabs.org/faqs/FAQ-ketamine.php
http://www.drugabuse.gov/DrugPages/DrugsofAbuse.html
http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/ketamine/ketamine_faq.shtml#1
http://leda.lycaeum.org/?ID=9251

Dependency:
While Ketamine is generally considered to be more psychologically addicting, its physical hold is also incredibly powerful on an individual. Regular users may find it extremely difficult to stop.
Ketamine’s seductive and tremendous psychological dependence results from the dissociation from one’s consciousness experienced with the drug.

If used regularly, users of Special K can quickly build a tolerance to the drug’s effects. Special K is illegal and possession can result in long prison terms.

Tolerance is a diminished response to a drug. It is the effect of cellular adaptive changes or enhanced drug metabolism from extended use of a medication. Tolerance develops over days, weeks, or months.

According to the FDA, addiction is characterized by compulsive use, use for non-medical purposes, and continued use despite harm or risk of harm.
Sources:
http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/ketamine/ketamine_faq.shtml#1
http://www.drug-rehabs.org/faqs/FAQ-ketamine.php

Withdrawal:
It does not appear that Ketamine produces withdrawal symptoms in chronic users. However, abstaining long term users report tension, twitching, decreased attention span, and restlessness. These symptoms may be due more to the sedative norketamine (a breakdown product of ketamine) lingering in the blood stream.

If you are a long term Ketamine user, it is advisable to stop taking it under medical supervision. Sudden cessation of the drug in long term users may produce unpredictable effects.
Source:
http://www.thegooddrugsguide.com/ketamine/addiction.htm

Treatment:
With a moderate to severe addiction from relatively long term use, an in patient detox in a hospital or medical supervised setting is available. Lower levels of dependence can usually be handled under a knowledgeable physician’s supervision with minimal discomfort. Treatment will ultimately depend on the degree of addiction.

However a person chooses to free themselves from the clutches of a drug, there is one constant each needs: Support. Narcotics Anonymous remains a successful choice for many addicts, with world-wide availability. The “information age” has produced numerous on line support forums, popular with many recovering addicts, useful to some addicts as their sole means of support and for others, as adjunct therapy. Drug addiction is treatable, with help out there for everyone.

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